[3], In his early years as Pope, Julius II removed the Borjas from power and exiled them to Spain. He was instrumental in the war that broke out between the pope and King Ferrante of Naples, which resulted in the execution of revolting barons and Innocent VIII's papacy being discredited. Thenceforward, all popes were bearded until the death of Pope Innocent XII in 1700. He still continued to hear masses, visits churches, and address audiences, but after becoming bed-ridden during Christmas, he made arrangements for his funeral. Julian was one of the most powerful secular rulers in Italy and Europe. Pope Julius II is remembered more for his patronage of the arts — including commissioning Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel — than for his theological impact on the Catholic church. He was created cardinal by Pope Paul III in 1536, filled several important legations, and was elected pope on the 7th of February 1550, despite the opposition of Charles V , whose enmity he had incurred as president of the council of Trent. All paintings made of the Borgias or for them must be covered over with black crepe. [39], In 1485 Pope Innocent and Cardinal della Rovere (as the Pope's new principal advisor) decided to involve themselves in the political affairs of the Kingdom of Naples, in what was called the Conspiracy of the Barons. After the ceremonies of the election of Pope Innocent were completed, the cardinals were dismissed to their own homes, but Cardinal della Rovere accompanied the new Pope to the Vatican Palace and was the only one to remain with him. The barons seized L'Aquila and appealed to the Pope for assistance as their feudal overlord. He was well aware that the Church was corrupt and sought to dramatically reform it. Saved by an allegory to the Expulsion of Helidorus, the French gone, Julius collapsed once again in late 1512, very seriously ill once more. He is very historically significant in papal history and this, therefore, makes it one of his favorite items in the entire Collection. However, it does not take very much effort to discover which way Julius leans. 501-502, 506-507. [1] One of the most powerful and influential popes, Julius II was a central figure of the High Renaissance and left a significant cultural and political legacy. Marino Sanuto, I, p. 555. As Legate, his mission was threefold: to make peace between King Louis XI and the Emperor Maximilian of Austria; to raise funds for a war against the Ottoman Turks; and to negotiate the release of Cardinal Jean Balue and Bishop Guillaume d'Harancourt (who by then had been imprisoned by Louis for eleven years on charges of treason). Nicknamed the Warrior Pope or the Fearsome Pope, he chose his papal name not in honour of Pope Julius I but in emulation of Julius Caesar. Category:Popes by nationality. He encouraged the French conquest of the papal territory of Naples in 1494 and 1495, and following the successful military campaign, he unsuccessfully sought to convoke a council that would depose Alexander for simony. Despite being ill, he attended two sessions of the council, primarily to receive the formal adhesion of Emperor Maximilian to the Lateran Council, which was one of his greatest triumphs. He had four siblings: Bartolomeo, later Bishop of Ferrara; Leonardo; Giovanni, later Prefect of the City of Rome and Prince of Sorea and Senigallia; and Lucina, mother of Cardinal Sisto Gara della Rovere. [109] On Christmas Eve, Julius ordered Paris to summon the College of Cardinals and the Sacristan of the Apostolic Palace, quia erat sic infirmus, quod non-speraret posse diu supravivere. Even then, he could be dispensed. A member of the Franciscan order, his career was significantly boosted when his uncle was elected as Pope Sixtus IV (1471). Eubel, II, p. 56, nos.649 and 651. Pope Julius II commissioned the rebuilding of St Peter's Basilica, Michelangelo's decoration and full-scale painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and his discerning eye in hiring the artist Raphael as a young man brought numerous improvements to the Vatican. [90] The League fought against the Republic of Venice. 486; 108. In spite of a violent temper della Rovere succeeded by dexterous diplomacy in winning the support of Cesare Borgia, whom he won over by his promise of money and continued papal backing for Borgia policies in the Romagna. He returned to Rome on 4 October 1476. With the French out of Italy and Spain recognizing Naples as a papal fief, a Congress was held in Mantua by Julius II to declare the liberation of the peninsula. Leo X and Clement VII, respectively). "[108] Nonetheless, he continued his restless activities, including Masses, visits to churches, and audiences. On the 20th, according to Paris de Grassis, he received Holy Communion from the hands of Cardinal Raffaele Riario, the Camerlengo. [125] Such accusations were made to discredit him, but perhaps in so doing his accusers were exploiting a generally "perceived weakness". A warrior pope, he failed to bring Italy under papal control. [89] In 1508, Julius was fortuitously able to form the League of Cambrai with Louis XII, King of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor (proclaimed without coronation as Emperor by Pope Julius II at Trent in 1508) and Ferdinand II, King of Aragon. Julius, unlike his predecessors and many of his successors, was committed to reforming the Church. The rulers of Europe paid little attention, but to show his sincerity Alexander imposed a tithe on all the residents of the Papal States and a tithe on the clergy of the entire world. Conradus Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, sive Summorum pontificum, S.R.E. [6] This is often presented in traditional historiography as the moment in which Renaissance Italy came the closest to unification after the end of the Italic League of the 15th century. Pastor, VI, p. 61 with note ||. Della Rovere, however, had enemies, both because of the influence he had exercised over Pope Sixtus IV and because of his French sympathies. Updated February 24, 2019 Pope Julius II was also known as Giuliano della Rovere. Early in his papacy, Julius decided to revive the plan for replacing the dilapidated Constantinian basilica of St. Peter's. Oxford University Press. In Rome, the Pope watched from his private chapel to see how his court behaved. Antonello de Sanseverino was the brother-in-law of Cardinal della Rovere's brother Giovanni, who was a noble of Naples because of his fief of Sora. On 24 July 1493, Cardinal della Rovere returned to Rome (despite the warnings of Virginius Orsini) and dined with the Pope. For the accomplishment of this task no pope was ever better suited than Julius, whom nature and circumstances had hewn out for a soldier. From the beginning, Julius II set out to defeat the various powers that challenged his temporal authority; in a series of complicated stratagems, he first succeeded in rendering it impossible for the Borgias to retain their power over the Papal States. [84], Urbino's magnificent court palace was infiltrated by French soldiers in the pay of the Duke of Gonzaga; the Montefeltro Conspiracy against his loyal cousins earned the occupying armies the Pope's undying hatred. He held the diocese until 1502. [45] Kellogg, Baynes & Smith, continue, a "rivalry had, however, gradually grown up between [della Rovere] and [then-Cardinal] Rodrigo Borgia, and on the death of Innocent VIII in 1492 Borgia by means of a secret agreement and simony with Ascanio Sforza succeeded in being elected by a large majority, under the name of Pope Alexander VI." Julius II was described by Machiavelli in his works as the ideal prince. The Kingdom of Naples was under Spanish rule, and the Borja family from Spain was a major political faction in the Papal States following the reign of Alexander VI. [78][79] The combination was, however, at first little more than nominal, and was not immediately effective in compelling the Venetians to deliver up more than a few unimportant places in the Romagna. He was later sent by this same uncle (who by that time had become Minister General of the Franciscans (1464–1469)), to the Franciscan friary in Perugia, where he could study the sciences at the University. In 1506, Julius II established the Vatican Museums and initiated the rebuilding of the St. Peter's Basilica. 24 January 1502: Eubel, II, p. 108. In overturning the ban on beards Pope Julius challenged Gregorian conventional wisdom in dangerous times. Julius II (1443-1513), who was pope from 1503 to 1513, was a noted Renaissance patron of the arts. He was summoned by King Charles VIII to Lyons, where the two met on 1 June 1494. Italy wasn't at peace either. [12] With a campaign in 1506, he personally led an army to Perugia and Bologna, freeing the two papal cities from their despots, Giampolo Baglioni and Giovanni II Bentivoglio. In fact, after the death of Julius, war would resume and the treaties of Noyon and Brussels in 1516 will again formalize the division of much of Italy between French and Spanish influence. Genoa and Venice supported the Papacy, while Florence and Milan opted for Naples. However, Julius II was far away from the possibility to form a single Italian kingdom, if that was his goal at all, since foreign armies were largely involved in his wars and the French were preparing new campaigns against the Swiss for Milan. Leo was a personification of Renaissance ideals. In 1484 Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere had begun negotiations to persuade Marquis Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua to allow Andrea Mantegna to come to Rome, which finally bore fruit in 1488; Mantegna was given the commission to decorate the chapel of the Belvedere for Pope Innocent VIII, on which he spent two years.[115]. [95], Attempts to cause a rupture between France and England proved unsuccessful; on the other hand, at a synod convened by Louis at Tours in September 1510, the French bishops withdrew from papal obedience and resolved, with the Emperor's co-operation, to seek dethronement of the pope. cardinalium, ecclesiarum antistitum series. 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