2) normal fault. Prenez le volant d’une voiture de type Camionette lorsque vous arrivez à Hayward Fault Exposed. Recent studies show that such powerful Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past. A second factor making the Hayward Fault so dangerous is that its most recent damaging earthquake was more than 150 years ago. This research, carried out in hundreds of places, has documented approximately 2000 years of large earthquakes up and down the Hayward fault. The urban infrastructure in the Bay Area has been tested only by the relatively remote, 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake, and the smaller 2014 magnitude 6.0 South Napa earthquake. In 1868, the little settlement of Haywards was nearest to the epicenter of the earthquake. The Hayward Fault has ruptured about every 140 years for its previous five large earthquakes. As the complex evolved, the Hayward fault at times may have been the principal active trace, as the San Andreas fault is today—and might be again.Transform plate boundaries are an important element of plate tectonics, the theoretical framework that explains the motions and behavior of Earth's outermost shell. Preparing now can significantly reduce loss of life and property from that coming quake. Although the region was then sparsely populated, this quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California?s history. This digital map database, compiled from previously open- filed U.S. Geological Survey reports (Graymer and others, 1994, Graymer, Jones, and Brabb, 1994) and unpublished data, represents the general distribution of rocks and faults in the Hayward fault zone. On April 15, 2006, Drs. As demonstrated by the aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, and Maria, recovery from catastrophic events can take years. October 21, 2008, marks the 140th Anniversary of the 1868 approximate Magnitude 7 earthquake. Google Scholar. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. The Hayward Fault. Until it was eclipsed by the great 1906 earthquake, the 1868 earthquake was known as the “great San Francisco quake.” The area of strongest shaking covered about 1,000 square miles. Traveler type. Strong shaking during the 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake caused the second story of the Alameda County Courthouse in San Leandro to collapse (photo courtesy of the Bancroft Library, University of California). However, as in 1906, well-constructed buildings on firm ground sustained much less damage. Fault creep Bon choix! Red lines are major earthquake faults; black line shows the portion of the Hayward Fault that ruptured in 1868; diamonds show locations of damage reports (1868) and seismic recordings (1989). William L. Ellsworth. Study of excavations across the Hayward Fault has provided a record of strong earthquakes, all estimated at magnitude of 6.3 or greater, going back hundreds of years—some historical events are shown for reference. 9 8 R - 1 3 SSaa n LLeeanddrroo S a n F r a n c i s c o B a y o y 5 D A P 0 0 7. The Hayward fault is part of the wide plate boundary between the two largest lithospheric plates: the Pacific plate on the west and the North American plate on the east. Hayward is the 37th biggest city in California by how many people live there. At San Leandro, with a population of about 400, the second floor of the Alameda County Courthouse collapsed, and many other buildings were destroyed. Traces of the Hayward Fault, California The purpose of this map is to show the location of and evidence for recent movement on active fault traces within the Hayward Fault Zone, California. Réservez votre propriété de vacances en ligne. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that the fault may be ready to produce another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. USGS and other scientists have used the 1908 report, as well as historical newspaper accounts, photographs, pioneer diaries, and letters, to understand the shaking effects and gauge the size of the 1868 earthquake. Geo virtual Field trip: Hayward Fault at Central Park Group members: Marissa Saltos, Micaela Villarroel. Other important engineering lessons from the 1868 earthquake, though actively discussed at the time, were not heeded. Filter. The Hayward fault is a 90 kilometer long crack in the Earth's crust that travels through the San Francisco Bay area. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), Mapping, Remote Sensing, and Geospatial Data. (I’ll return to that.) The Hayward fault runs through the East Bay hills from San Jose through Richmond. (Public domain. (Public domain.). Seismic Imaging of a Bimaterial Interface Along the Hayward Fault, CA, with Fault Zone Head Waves and Direct P Arrivals A. The next time it produces a large quake, the damage and destruction could be staggering - estimated economic losses from an 1868-strength earthquake (6.8 magnitude) could exceed 120 billion dollars. By using ThoughtCo, you accept our, Tectonic Landforms: Escarpments, Ridges, Valleys, Basins, Offsets. ), A filtered vertical laser image, taken using a technique called light detection and ranging (LIDAR), of part of the Hayward Fault (red lines) in the City of Berkeley. Dot size indicates the present relative population sizes of cities. Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country, USGS General Information Products 15, 41, and 42. The Hayward Fault is thought capable of generating a magnitude 7.5 quake. The Hayward Fault is a Strike-slip Fault. The earthquake occurred at 7:53 a.m. on October 21, 1868. The symptoms of this tectonic origami are visible across the region in cracked asphalt, off-kilter curbstones, and leaning walls. Numerous witnesses reported seeing the ground move in waves. The Hayward Fault—Is It Due for a Repeat of the Powerful 1868 Earthquake? Its last major rupture occurred in 1868, during California's frontier days, and was the original "Great San Francisco Earthquake" until 1906. The cracking of the ground along the Hayward Fault was traced about 20 miles (32 km) from San Leandro to Warm Springs in Fremont, although modeling of survey data suggest that the fault moved as far north as Berkeley, and from these data the average amount of horizontal movement along the fault is inferred to be about 6 feet (1.9 meters). The mapped traces represent the integration of the following three different types of data: (1) geomorphic expression, (2) creep (aseismic fault slip),and (3) trench exposures. Although the region was sparsely populated, the quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California’s history. A more distant quake along the Hayward fault could hit Napa with seismic waves arriving more at a lope. The Hayward Fault is shorter than the San Andreas, running about 70 kilometers from Fremont to Point Pinole, and is therefore not expected to produce the magnitude-8-plus quakes we know the San Andreas can generate. The occasion on Friday was a photo op for the press. All languages; English (9) Selected filters. The Hayward Fault, a long and lethal crack in the Earth, slices along the base of the Berkeley Hills and directly through the University of California. The 1868 Hayward Fault earthquake is a reminder of the tremendous power that lurks beneath the Earth’s surface in the San Francisco Bay region. and if you can, can u guys also tell me the most recent major earthquake along this fault, and also problems we would encounter if we have another major earthquake along this fault… what type of fault is the hayward fault "Our data support more of a model for irregular occurrence," she says.Nearby faults add another level of uncertainty. This is an easy walk and a good opportunity to educate yourself and your children. It’s a perfect time to practice Drop, Cover, and Hold On, to check your emergency kit, and to test your earthquake response plans. In addition to creating scenarios, regular practice drills by whole communities are essential. Contributed by Dale Smith Photos by Phil Garbutt. Popular mentions . Here’s a zoom-in to the lower right corner, showing the upper part of Arroyo Viejo and the valley of a defunct little stream that I’m calling Arroyo Viejito. A Double-Difference Earthquake Location Algorithm: Method and Application to the Northern Hayward Fault, California Felix Waldhauser; Felix Waldhauser U.S. Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Rd., MS977 Menlo Park, California, 94025 felix@andreas.wr.usgs.gov ellsworth@usgs.gov . 6 Igneous rocks are presented first, and they are grouped according to rock type. Brick buildings, walls, and chimneys were also shaken down in Oakland, San Francisco, Santa Rosa, and San Jose, and there was serious damage in Napa and Hollister. Mar-May; Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov; Dec-Feb; Language. Hayward is the sixth largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area and the third largest in Alameda County, It is on the Bay's eastern shore, next to Union City.The San Mateo-Hayward Bridge starts there. 2. USGS scientists describe the Hayward fault as a tectonic time bomb, due anytime for another magnitude 6.8 to 7.0 earthquake. 3) reverse fault By Pool Type . The Hayward Fault splinters from the Calaveras Fault, which itself is an offshoot of the The last large event was the 1984 Morgan Hill event and the last moderate earthquake was the 2007 Alum Rock event. This field guide consists of eleven stops at sites that illustrate the geological, geophysical, geographic, and engineering aspects of the Hayward fault in the East Bay. Oakland, a town of about 12,000 and mainly wood-frame buildings, was much less heavily damaged than San Leandro and Hayward. He placed expansion joints in the stadium exterior walls mainly at the points where the wall intersected the fault. The Calaveras Fault is a major branch of the San Andreas Fault System that is located in northern California in the San Francisco Bay Area. In Ground Above Ground Commercial By Category . In 1996, an 18-millimeter creep event, the largest ever observed on the Hayward fault, occurred between surveys 63 days apart. However, many scientists believe that the Hayward Fault is connected to the Calaveras Fault to the south, the Rodgers Creek Fault to the north and to the Maacama Fault still farther north. The Hayward fault is considered a branch within the San Andreas Fault system (fig 1). San Jose, a town of about 9,000 that lies several miles south and west of the fault trace, had few wrecked buildings but many fallen chimneys. 1. The Hayward Fault is a Strike-slip Fault. Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. Pool Pumps Pool Heaters Pool Cleaners Pool Sanitization Pool Automation ... Hayward websites have been developed in compliance with standards for Internet Explorer 10 or later. Damage to infrastructure, such as transportation and utilities, and other long-term economic effects could substantially increase the losses. Geodetic Constraints on San Francisco Bay Area Fault Slip Rates and Potential Seismogenic Asperities on the Partially Creeping Hayward Fault  Evans, Eileen Louise; Loveless, John P.; Meade, Brendan J. : U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 2018–3052, 4 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/fs20183052. The chapter reviewed the descriptions of surface faulting, collected damage and felt reports, and interviewed survivors of the earthquake. Although it has been known for some time that the Calaveras and Hayward faults merge in the South Bay region, recent geological studies suggest that the Calaveras and Hayward faults may be even more closely connected horizontally deep beneath the surface, angling toward each other with depth until they become a single fault. The forces associated with the fault have pushed up the East Bay hills on the east and dropped down the San Francisco Bay block on the west. Is the Hayward Fault the Nation’s Most Dangerous Fault? These data are a geospatial representation of liquefaction potential for the HayWired earthquake scenario, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurring on the Hayward Fault on April 18, 2018, with an epicenter in the city of Oakland, CA. Publication type: Report: Publication Subtype: USGS Numbered Series: Title: The Hayward Fault, we can't ignore it; a video tape; Part 1, Faults, earthquake history and Hayward Fault tour, and Part 2, Fault creep, earthquake hazards and the future Search for other works by this author on: GSW. 1. NCGS Commemorates the 1906 Great Earthquake by Walking…the Hayward Fault! Scientists estimate that the magnitude of the 1868 quake was 6.8. Shaking from the 1868 quake was the strongest that the new towns and growing cities of the Bay Area had ever experienced. Shaking was felt as far away as Nevada, and aftershocks rattled the Bay Area for weeks. The red stripe, which I added, represents the Hayward fault. Since then, nearly three million people have moved next to the Hayward fault with little regard for its earthquake potential. This high likelihood is based in part on recent geologic studies along the Hayward Fault near Fremont, California, revealing that the South Hayward Fault has generated twelve major earthquakes in the last 1900 years, on average every 160 ± 65 years. By Thomas M. Brocher, Jack Boatwright, James J. Lienkaemper, Carol S. Prentice, David P. Schwartz, and Howard Bundock. English. Ground cracking caused by this earthquake was traced for 20 miles along the Hayward Fault, from Warm Springs in Fremont north to San Leandro. That report stated that there’s a 31 percent chance the Hayward Fault will produce a magnitude 6.7 or greater earthquake in the next three decades.The fault runs parallel to and east of the San Andreas Fault. Note that the interval between successive quakes has varied from 95 to 183 years, averaging 150 years, and it is now more than 150 years since the 1868 earthquake. IE9 and older versions are not supported. These measures combined to ensure that buildings built in San Francisco between 1868 and 1906 survived the powerful shaking of the 1906 San Francisco quake, with the exception of the San Francisco City Hall. ShakeMap showing the inferred intensity of ground shaking in the 1868 earthquake (measured as MMI, or Modified Mercalli Intensity), compared to a ShakeMap for the 1989 magnitude 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay region. At its northern end, the Hayward fault runs across undeveloped land in a regional shoreline park. intensity: IX : Casualties: 30: Damaged building in Hayward (top) and at the Hayward stud mill. Such an earthquake could unexpectedly change people’s lives and impact the Bay Area’s infrastructure and economy, but updated building codes and retrofits, as well as planning, community training, and preparedness, will help reduce the effects of a future Hayward Fault earthquake. Rock Types Associated with the Hayward Fault, California Article CITATIONS 4 READS 13 1 author: Diane E Moore United States Geological Survey 106 PUBLICATIONS 2,478 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE Available from: Diane E Moore Retrieved on: 19 September 2016. It splays to the east and trends between N. 20° and 35°W along some 119 km. Filter. Its last major earthquake occurred on October 21st, 1868, destroying downtown Hayward, killing 5 people and, injuring 30. To estimate the shaking intensity, it is necessary to consider the construction of the damaged buildings, that is, whether they were adobe, brick, or wood. Motion over millions of years has brought different sets of rocks next to each other on the fault trace. USGS scientists have found evidence for 12 quakes on the southern Hayward Fault during the past 1,900 years. All languages; English (9) Selected filters. This means that it shows its everyday action in the form of aseismic creep, the slow, steady sliding of land along the fault’s margin. This fault, called a “tectonic time bomb,” is about 74 miles long. The Hayward Fault is the single most urbanized earthquake faultin the United States—in 1868 there were only 24,000 residents living in Alameda County; now there are more than 2.4 million people. Traveller type. Hayward Fault connection. What type of fault is the Hayward Fault? English. It is located within its central section, between the latitudes of San Jose and Bakersfield. Objectives General: Describe the Hayward Fault at the central park using the technology tools Google Earth applying the got knowledge throughout the field methods course to the characterization of the different geological features in the field trips. We will see examples at points 5.2 and 5.4 on this tour. USGS earthquake science tells us that it’s now urgent to prepare for the next magnitude 7 quake on the Hayward Fault. In the early morning of October 21, 1868, seismic waves from a powerful earthquake raced through the fog-shrouded San Francisco Bay area. It still ranks as one of the most destructive earthquakes in California’s history, but this is not the end of the story. Families; Couples; Solo; Business; Friends; Time of year. Strike-Slip Faults. Hayward has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 6 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 17 earthquakes in the past 30 days; 319 earthquakes in the past 365 days The Hayward Fault is a major earthquake fault that runs for nearly 45 miles (72 km) through the East Bay of the San Francisco Bay region. The Hayward Fault will rupture violently again, and perhaps soon. Section I (Stops 1–4) consists of stops that are part of the University of California at Berkeley (UC-Berkeley), including research facilities, retrofit of campus buildings, and geomorphic features along the fault. The Hayward fault is a transform or strike-slip fault that moves sideways, rather than the more common faults that move up on one side and down on the other. The fault passes through the University of California Berkeley football stadium (left), and past earthquake movements have significantly offset Hamilton Gulch (center). Fascinating to see Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA. This is a good place to see the fault in its natural setting, where a big quake will do little more than knock you on your butt. "(It's) the single most dangerous fault … Joyce Blueford and Mitch Craig lead NCGS members, family, and the general public on a field trip to examine evidence of the Hayward Fault in the East Bay. This is a type of shearing force where the right block moves toward you and the left block moves away. Much of what we know about the 1868 quake is documented in a chapter of an important report on the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, which was published in 1908. The HayWired scenario is a hypothetical, but scientifically plausible story of an earthquake and its aftermath that happens in the Haward Fault. Reverse, Strike-Slip, Oblique, and Normal Faults, A History of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, Introduction to Convergent Plate Boundaries, B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire. mini wrote a review Jan 2020. A probability map shows a 33-percent chance of that massive quake happening along the Hayward fault, which is considered the most dangerous in … This event marked the end of a period of severely reduced creep on the southern part of the fault that began after the 1989 Loma Prieta, California, earthquake. Critical regional gas and water pipelines and electrical transmission lines cross the fault. Combining these intensity estimates with current knowledge of earthquake effects and geology allows researchers to create a “ShakeMap” that depicts the inferred intensity of shaking throughout the region in 1868 and can also be used to predict damage to modern buildings. Meanwhile, much of the fault moves slowly, without earthquakes, in the form of aseismic creep. Log in Ask Question. The 150th anniversary of the 1868 quake is in 2018; scientists are convinced that the Hayward Fault has reached the point where a powerful, damaging earthquake can be expected at any time. Activity on the different segments of the fault includes moderate and large earthquakes as well as aseismic creep. Quel que soit le type de location saisonnière que vous recherchez, vous trouverez plus de 1 000 options d'hébergements meublés (Maisons, Appartements/condos et plus), idéales pour courts et longs séjours, que vous voyagiez en famille, en groupe ou en couple. The population at greatest risk from a Hayward Fault earthquake is 100 times greater than in 1868. Because seismographs had not yet been invented, there are no recordings of the 1868 earthquake. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies show that similar Hayward Fault quakes have repeatedly jolted the region in the past and that... Office of Communications and Publishing12201 Sunrise Valley DriveReston, VA 20192United StatesPhone: 703-648-4460. Notably, the last six quakes (in 1134, 1317, 1475, 1629, 1725, and 1868) occurred at intervals of 95 to 183 years, with an average interval of about 150 years. But the most significant improvement in shaking resistance was the advent of steel-frame buildings in 1885. If that is the case, the longer fault system could produce larger temblors. Almost every building in Hayward, then a town with about 500 residents, was wrecked or severely damaged—few places have paid so dearly to have a fault named after them. On October 21, 1868, a magnitude 6.8 earthquake struck the San Francisco Bay area. Families; Couples; Solo; Business; Friends; Time of year. … The Hayward fault began forming about 12 million years ago as part of the North American/Pacific plate boundary, along with the rest of the San Andreas fault complex. Popular mentions . The annual global earthquake drill, Shakeout, will be held on Thursday 18 October 2018, at 10:18 AM. But the only way to learn the history of a fault before written records is to dig trenches across it and closely study the sediments. Réservez maintenant, payez plus tard avec Expedia. Although the region was sparsely populated, the quake on the Hayward Fault was one of the most destructive in California’s history. Many brick walls, cornices, and other heavy architectural elements of buildings in the city fell, and the U.S. The mainshock begins beneath the City of Oakland (star) and causes the Hayward Fault to rupture along about 52 miles of its length (thick black line). Hayward is a city in the East Bay area of Alameda County, California.It has a population of 144,186. Historical land-survey data suggest that the fault broke as far north as Berkeley, with an average horizontal offset of about 6 feet (2 meters). A major seaport and rail terminal as well as a county seat, Oakland is aware of its vulnerability and is slowly getting better prepared for the inevitable large earthquake on the Hayward fault. The Hayward Fault Zone is a geologic fault zone capable of generating destructive earthquakes.This fault is about 74 mi (119 km) long, situated mainly along the western base of the hills on the east side of San Francisco Bay.It runs through densely populated areas, including Richmond, El Cerrito, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Castro Valley, Hayward, Union City, Fremont, and San Jose. (Public domain. Nearly all transform faults are in the deep sea, but the major ones on land are noteworthy and dangerous, such as the Haiti Earthquake of 2010. Then, nearly three million people have moved next to each other on the Hayward Fault is a,! It splays to the Hayward Fault Exposed, Fremont, CA numerous witnesses seeing! Bay hills from San Jose and Bakersfield hour earlier more than 40 seconds, devastating several Bay... 7:53 a.m. on October 21, 1868, seismic waves arriving more at a lope as far away Nevada. 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