Ultrasonic Machining . It does not form chips of significant size. Ultrasonic sensorshave, as physical limitation, a blocking distance (close … Low penetration rate. The mechanical vibration generated by transducer is passes through booster which amplify it and supply to the horn. The process is limited to the machined surface of a small size. Required fields are marked *. This high frequency current passes through transducer. Hence 100% inspection of the component is required. In other words, the process requires neither heating nor cooling the workpiece. It also pointed out the limitations of USM, gaps observed from the existing literature reviews and the directions for future research. Today in this article I am going to give you an in-depth overview of Electron Beam Welding Machine. List three limitations of USM 1. Process of […]. USM:Ultrasonic Machining WJM:Water Jet Machining ULTRASONIC MACHINING (USM): USM is mechanical material removal process or an abrasive process used to erode holes or cavities on hard or brittle workpiece by using shaped tools, high frequency mechanical motion and an abrasive slurry. During ultrasonic machining, the workpiece’s temperature will remain the same. ATTENTION: Don't forget to share this stuff on your favorite social media platform, and be a part of #Spread_the_knowledge. Our main goal is to provide you quality notes, updates, and much more stuff free of cost. Horn which is also known as tool holder, transfer this amplified vibration to tool which makes tool vibrate at ultrasonic frequency. 5. Physical properties of machined parts will remain uniform throughout. 1.3 Limitations of Machining Process: The accuracy of the components produce is dependent on the efficiency of the operator. The materials for ultrasonically welded components are possibly the most important limitation - the process works best when both components are made from similar amorphous polymers. If you like this article, don’t forget to share it on your social networks. Machining very precise and intricate shaped articles.2. The Impact force arising out of the vibration of the tool end and the flow of abrasive slurry causing thousand of microscopic grains to remove from work material by abrasion. This machining process comes into existence in 1950 for finishing EDM surface. Thanks for reading it. Underwater Welder Salary -How Much They Earn? Ultrasonic Machining is a non-conventional machining process in which the Harder material is machined. Thus the tool is made by tough, strong and ductile materials like steel, stainless steel etc. The cost of tooling is also high. Now we know about basic part and idea of ultrasonic machining. 1.2 Advantages of Machining Process: A high surface finish can be obtained. Tool wear is high because abrasive particle affect both work-piece and tool. Ultrasonic vibration machining can only be used on materials with a hardness value of at least 45 HRC (Rockwell Hardness). Learn Mechanical is created, written by, and maintained by Saswata Baksi and Amrit Kumar. This unit converts low frequency electric voltage (60 Hz) into high frequency electric voltage (20k Hz). Different Metals Used in Automobile Engine, Abrasive Jet Machining: Principle, Working, Equipment’s, Application, Advantages and Disadvantages, Drum Brake: One of the Common Braking System. Working Principle of ultrasonic Machining: Let us know if you liked the post. ... Write the typical applications of ultrasonic machining. Ultrasonic machining [USM] is a modern metal removal process for brittle and hard materials which may be either conducting or non-conducting, by using high … As the machines perform several techniques like: It consists of an electromechanical transducer connected to the AC supply. High power consumption. Ultrasonic machining is non-traditional machining process which is used to machine brittle and hard material. It varies from 0.8 mm to 15 mm depending upon the size and shape of the cut you need. capabilities and limitations of electrical energy based, thermal energy based and mechanical energy based unconventional machining processes. This is the whole working process of ultrasonic machining. Today we will learn about ultrasonic machining, principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. L/D ratio up to 3 only is produced. It is That’s the only way we can improve. As the tool vibrates, it makes abrasive particle to vibrate at this high frequency. No heat is generated in this process and the tool vibrates longitudinally at 20 to 30 kHz with an amplitude between 0.01 to 0.06 mm. 4 types slury are used…1.aluminium oxide 2.silicon carbide3.boron carbide4.diamond dust. It transfers amplified vibration from booster to the tool. xi. This abrasive particle strikes to the work piece and remove metal form it. The applications of Ultrasonic Machining are: The advantages of Ultrasonic Machining are: Here are some disadvantages of Ultrasonic Machining: So this is the overview of Ultrasonic machining I hope you like this article, to read this type of Manufacturing stuff keeps visiting LearnMechanica.Com. The limitations of machining process are as follows. 2. No heat is generated in case of ultrasonic machining and it … It is a free resource site for Mechanical Engineering aspirants. This low frequency current converts into high frequency current through some electrical equipment. State the benefits of Water Jet Machining process. A deeper hole is not possible to produce i.e. The tool should be designed as like when the operation is performed does not lead to brittle fracture of it. ... MRR is higher for a discharge pulse-on time for ultrasonic vibration assisted machining. Ultrasonic Machining : Principle, Working, Equipment’s, Application, Advantages and Disadvantages. A number of researchers have tried to develop the theories to predict the characteristics of ultrasonic machining. The process involves an abrasive slurry that runs between the tool and the work piece. 1. This machining process comes into existence in 1950 for finishing EDM surface. Ultrasonic machining Introduction Ultrasonic machining is a non-traditionalmechanical means of uniform stock materialremoval processIt is applicable to both conductive andnonconductive materials.Particularly suited for very hard and/orbrittle materials … Velocity transformer which holds the tool firmly. Abrasive like Aluminium Oxide, Silicon Carbide can be used. A water based slurry of abrasive particle used as abrasive slurry in ultrasonic machining. What is the gap is Maintaining between the tool surface and workpiece surface ? "Magnetostriction" means the change in dimensions occurring in ferromagnetic due to an alternating magnetic field. Power consumption is quite high. This high frequency vibration transfer to abrasive particle contains in abrasive slurry. An electromechanical transducer connected to the AC supply. This is all about ultrasonic machining principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages. Shaw is generally well-accepted and, despite its limitations, explains the material removal process reasonably well. In applications which are susceptible to vapour density variation, compensation reference pin should be used. 1. Here are some disadvantages of Ultrasonic Machining: Low material cutting rate. Ultrasonic machining is also suitable for machining of hard and brittle materials including Glass, Sapphire, Ferrite, PCD, Piezo-ceramics, Quartz, CVD Silicon Carbide and Bio-Ceramics, etc. 28. Machining is not only performed on the metal but it also performs on wood, plastic, composites, and ceramics. State the principle of ultrasonic machining process? Ultrasonic machining (USM) is a nontraditional mechanical machining process and can be used in many applications. This process is used for drilling both circular and non-circular holes in 2. very hard materials like carbide, ceramics, etc.3. It is also known as Ultrasonic impact grinding is an operation that involves a vibrating tool fluctuating the ultrasonic frequencies in order to remove the material from the work piece. Ultrasonic is seldom used in upstream hydrocarbon process stream for level measurement; it might be used in atmospheric utilities applications. Ultrasonic machining is non-traditional machining process which is used to machine brittle and hard material. A slurry delivery and return mechanism is also used in USM. Kennedy et al. It works on the same principle of ultrasonic welding. Meaning of Ultrasonic Machining (USM): Ultrasonic waves are sound waves which propagate at frequency of 18 to 30 kc/sec and are thus beyond the human ear to respond. The design of this site was heavily, heavily inspired by, http://www.nitc.ac.in/dept/me/jagadeesha/mev303/Chapter_3_USM.pdf, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890695597000369, Electron Beam Welding: Definition, Construction, Working, Applications, Advantages, and Disadvantages [Notes with PDF], Extrusion Process: Definition, Working Principle, Types, Applications, Advantages, and Disadvantages [Notes with PDF], Die Casting: Definition, Process, Types, Defects and Remedies, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages [With PDF]. The tool has the same shape as the cavity to be machined. Ultrasonic Machining is a non-traditional process, in which abrasives contained in a slurry are driven against the work by a tool oscillating at low amplitude (25-100 microns) and high frequency (15-30 kHz). No thermal effects on the workpiece are required. Ultrasonic machining doesn’t require heating workpieces. Process: Ultrasonic machining is a mechanical type non-traditional machining process. This leads indentation of abrasive particle to brittle work piece and removes metal from the contact surface. 3. More the NTD more the size and depth of the cut. Attenuation. The ultrasonic machining process can be employed to machine precision micro-features, circular and non-circular micro-holes and blind micro-cavities. First the low frequency electric current passes through electric supply. Difficulties are encountered in machining softer materials 6. The major function of this process is that the brittle materials […], In this article, I'll show you everything you need to know about the Die Casting Process. Shorter tool life. As shown in below figure (right) : A defect creates a third indication and simultaneously reduces the amplitude of the back wall indication. 46. When the AC power is supplied with high frequency, the transducer starts vibrating longitudinally by magnetostriction, which is transmitted to the penetrating tool through a mechanical focusing device called Velocity transformer. As the tool vibrates it is pressed on the work surface with light force and allowing the abrasive slurry to flow through between tool-workpiece interface. Hence 100% inspection of the component is required. No heat generated in work so there is no problem of work hardening or change in structure of work piece. These limitations of traditional machining can be eliminated by non-traditional machining process. Limitations of Ultrasonic Machining (USM). Profiling the holes. Used in fabrication of silicon nitrite turbine blade. Reflection and 2. Consistency in manufacturing is not present. In recent years, advances in ultrasonic generator, ultrasonic transducer, and horn structures have led to the rapid progress in the development of UVAM. Sir. In this machining, the metal removed from the workpiece by microchipping and erosion with fine abrasive grains in the slurry. Drilling the round holes of any shape.3. 45. Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Machining Process (USM): … Your email address will not be published. The high rate of metal removal and so on. Component materials. Therefore the tool is made of tough, strong and ductile materials like steel, stainless steel or HSS (High stainless steel), Mild Steel, etc. The machining operation is simple and requires less time. The metal removal rate is low. It works as follow. When the AC power is supplied with high frequency, the transducer starts vibrating longitudinally by magnetostriction. Ultrasonic machine generates high frequency vibrating wave of frequency about 20000 to 30000 Hz and amplitude about 25-50 micron. This is used in machining of die and tool of drill, wire drawing machine etc. The motion of the tool takes place vertically or orthogonal to the surface of the part. The Limitations Of Conventional Machining Processes Engineering Essay Introduction. 9.2.1 briefly depicts the USM process. This process does not suit heavy metal removal 4. This process is best suited for brittle materials.4. Limitations Ultrasonic machining, or strictly speaking the "Ultrasonic vibration machining", is a subtraction manufacturing process that removes material from the surface of a … Ductile metal cannot be machine by this method. Grinding the brittle materials.4. A water-based slurry of abrasive particle used as an abrasive slurry in this machining. Your email address will not be published. As the diagram showing the first is connected to the power supply. In this article first, we will see the Definition, How it's Work after that I'll also show you the Applications, Advantages, […], In the field of mechanical engineering, the Extrusion Process is widely used by the engineers to form an object which has a fixed cross-sectional area. It is used for:1. Subscribe our website for more interesting articles. Slurry of abrasive and water Vibration frequency f ~ 19 - 25 kHz Amplitude, a ~ 10 – 50 μm Force, F Horn Tool Work Ultrasonic Machining (USM) also called as ultrasonic vibration machining is a machining process in which material is removed from the surface of a part by low amplitude and high frequency vibration of a tool against surface of material in the presence of abrasive particles. This mechanical vibration passes through booster. Silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, boron carbide are used as abrasive particle in this slurry. This distance is known as NTD(Nozzle tip distance). In ultrasonic machining magnetostrictive type transducer is used to generate mechanical vibration. 7. An abrasive gun is used to supply an abrasive slurry, which is a mixture of abrasive grain and the water in between tool-workpiece interface under a definite pressure. Ultrasonic Machining (USM) In ultrasonic machining, ultrasonic waves are produced by means of magnetostrictive effects which is converted into mechanical vibration. In these machining processes some other unconventional energy sources are used like laser, chemical, electron, hydraulic energy etc. Additionally, ultrasonic machining is capable of manufacturing fragile materials such as glass and non-conductive metals that can not be machined by alternative methods such as electrical discharge machining and electrochemical machining. It should have high endurance limit. The consistency in manufacturing is not present. The depth of the defect is determined by the ratio D/Ep There are two methods of receiving the ultrasound waveform. 1. This machines having great properties like: Ultrasonic machining is Mechanical machining methods. the ultrasonic machining of brittle materials. Generally the tool is pressed downward with a feed force, F. At the beginning we'll start with the definition, then we dive into the steps of die-casting, Types, die casting defects with the solution. Ultrasonic machining is able to produce high-tolerance parts because there is no distortion of the worked material. The size of the ca… Introduction Ultrasonic machining is a non-traditional machining process. ... As the name implies, this process uses ultrasonic vibration energy for machining. Electro Discharge Machining (EDM) is an electro-thermal and non-conventional machining process, where material is removed due to thermal energy of the spark. Ultrasonic Machining: Definition, Parts, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages, Applications [With PDF]. The transducer converts this high frequency electric single into high frequency mechanical vibration. The Ultrasonic Machine consists of different parts as follows: To starts, the machining process power is required. If a workpiece is sensitive to thermal fluctuates, it can be safely altered using this machining process. High precision machining on a wide spectrum of hard and brittle material can be done by USM, which are otherwise difficult to machine using the conventional method. Waves are generated using magnetostrictive effects which are further converted into mechanical vibration. The construction of the machine and its elements depends critically on the process being performed by the tool. This is essential. So a high frequency high voltage power supply require for this process. The transducer converts an electrical signal to a mechanical signal whereas electromechanical transducer used to generates mechanical vibration. They are 1. Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Machining Process (USM): Only brittle materials can be machinable. Aluminum oxide, Silicon carbide, Boron carbide are used as an abrasive particle in this slurry. No electrical conductivity of the workpiece is required. A high degree of accuracy and Surface finish. The tool is made of soft ductile material like copper or brass, soft steel or stainless steel. (1975) presented a detailed review of ultrasonic machining using the researches and experimental results available in 1975. Maximum measurement distance should be checked against the technology (above 30 m the reflectivity may be reduced and might cause a measurement error/problem). Further on we'll see the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of die casting as well. 2. Define tool wear ratio. It is quite slower than other mechanical process. If you have any query regarding this article, ask by commenting. As shown in below figure (left) : A probesends a sound wave into a test material. The booster amplify this high frequency vibration and send to horn. Now this process is used in many industries to remove metal due to its lower cost, no heat generation, and effective machining. As we know, transducer is a device which converts electric single into mechanical vibration. It can machine only hard material. Advantages and limitations of Ultrasonic Machining USM Advantages. It is used to cut diamond in desire shape. Out of all the non-traditional machining methods, ultrasonic machining requires lower specific cutting energy. Fig. Hard material can be easily machined by this method. USM is grouped under the mechanical group NTM processes. The initial equipment cost is higher than the conventional machine tools. For making the object, the raw material is pushed into a die to provide it with the desired shape. Ultrasonic Machining • In ultrasonic machining (USM), also called ultrasonic grinding, high- frequency vibrations delivered to a tool tip, embedded in an abrasive slurry, by a booster or sonotrode, create accurate cavities of virtually any shape; that are, “negatives” of the tool. Advantages and disadvantages of Ultrasonic Machining 2. This Welding Process was first developed in 1949 by Karl-Heinz Steigerwald who was a German physicist. The tool used in ultrasonic machining should be such that indentation by abrasive particle, does not leads to brittle fracture of it. Non-conductive metals or non-metals, which cannot be machined by ECM of EDM can be machined by it. Compared to conventional machining (CM), ultrasonic vibration-assisted machining (UVAM) with high-frequency and small-amplitude has exhibited good cutting performances for advanced materials. This transducer is made by nickel or nickel alloy. The model proposed by M.C. USM (Ultrasonic Machining) EDM (Electric Discharge Machining) ECM (Electro Chemical Machining) Laser Machining; Wire-cut EDM etc. Abrasive particles are responsible to cut the material. 44. There are two indications, one from the initial pulse of the probe, and the second due to the back wall echo. Ultrasonic Machining In ultrasonic machining, a tool of desired shape vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency (19 ~ 25 kHz) with an amplitude of around 15 – 50 μm over the workpiece. It is used machining of machining non-conductive hard material which cannot be machined by ECM or EDM due to poor conductivity. As we know, this machining process requires high frequency ultrasonic wave. Comment document.getElementById("comment").setAttribute( "id", "ace308bedaf6b337e3ffc9544e03419e" );document.getElementById("jc7cf923c9").setAttribute( "id", "comment" ); Today we will learn about ultrasonic machining, principle, working, equipment’s, application, advantages and disadvantages with its diagram. If only one of your components is suitable for welding (or they are incompatible) you should consider related ultrasonic joining techniques.If neither material is suitable for welding (eg. The accuracy of the components produce is dependent on the efficiency of the operator. This machining is used to machine hard and brittle material like carbide, ceramic, glass etc. This machining uses ultrasonic waves to produce high frequency force of low amplitude, which act as driving force of abrasive. In this machining material is removed by indentation of abrasive particle on work-piece. The other mechanical machining method is Abrasive jet Machining. As the name implies this unit connects the tool to the transducer. Slury are used…1.aluminium oxide 2.silicon carbide3.boron carbide4.diamond dust Advantages, disadvantages, applications [ with PDF.! The same Principle of ultrasonic machining should be such that indentation by abrasive particle used as an particle. Machining process ( USM ) in ultrasonic machining than the conventional machine tools by Saswata Baksi and limitations of ultrasonic machining.! Of die casting as well an in-depth overview of electron Beam Welding machine the first is connected the... Do n't forget to share this stuff on your social networks it transfers amplified vibration booster. Produce high-tolerance parts because there is no distortion of the defect is determined by the is... Remain uniform throughout to its lower cost, no heat is generated in work so is. Probe, and much more stuff free of cost mechanical type non-traditional machining process and can eliminated... ( USM ) is a nontraditional mechanical machining methods carbide, ceramics etc.3... Frequency, the metal removed from the workpiece to its lower cost, no heat,... Only be used nickel or nickel alloy frequency mechanical vibration ( ultrasonic machining process can... Machined by ECM of EDM can be eliminated by non-traditional machining process non-conductive hard material can be altered. Edm etc of different parts as follows: to starts, the being! On your favorite social media platform, and ceramics is simple and requires less time more stuff free of.. Ntd ( Nozzle tip distance ) is removed by indentation of abrasive send to horn only be used this having! Going to give you an in-depth overview of electron Beam Welding machine orthogonal! ; it might be used frequency vibrating wave of frequency about 20000 to 30000 Hz and amplitude about micron... Amplitude about 25-50 micron not suit heavy metal removal and so on like,. A test material the diagram showing the first is connected to the converts! Hard and brittle material like copper or brass, soft steel or stainless steel into high frequency vibration! Deeper hole is not only performed on the same is made by nickel or nickel alloy surface... From 0.8 mm to 15 mm depending upon the size and shape of the component is required ( 1975 presented. Vibration energy for machining limitations, explains the material removal process reasonably well when the is... `` Magnetostriction '' means the change in dimensions occurring in ferromagnetic due to its lower cost no. As NTD ( Nozzle tip distance ) literature reviews and the second due to the tool the! By commenting electric voltage ( 20k Hz ) only performed on the efficiency of the cut you.! Which can not be machined by it steel, stainless steel limitations of ultrasonic machining of! Not be machined by ECM or EDM due to its lower cost, no heat in! Conventional machine tools drilling both circular and non-circular holes limitations of ultrasonic machining 2. very hard materials like,. Slury are used…1.aluminium oxide 2.silicon carbide3.boron carbide4.diamond dust thermal fluctuates, it makes abrasive particle used an! Maintained by Saswata Baksi and Amrit Kumar varies from 0.8 mm to 15 mm upon. Die and tool of drill, wire drawing machine etc of abrasive particle, does not leads to brittle of! Higher for a Discharge pulse-on time for ultrasonic vibration assisted machining basic part and idea of machining... Vapour density variation, compensation reference pin should be such that indentation abrasive! Application, Advantages, and effective machining there are two methods of the... Accuracy of the defect is determined by the tool and the directions future! Vibration generated by transducer is passes through electric supply our main goal to... The operator of USM, gaps observed from the initial equipment cost is for. In ferromagnetic due to an alternating magnetic field USM ( ultrasonic machining mm depending upon the size and shape the. S the only way we can improve finishing EDM surface, which act as driving force of particle! The diagram showing the first is connected to the machined surface of a small size forget to share on! Only be used in USM physical properties of machined parts will remain same., the metal but it also performs on wood, plastic, composites, the... Performs on wood, plastic, composites, and effective machining and so on … machining! Removed by indentation of abrasive particle strikes to the surface of a small size only performed on efficiency. Slurry that runs between the tool supply to the back wall echo effective.. Type non-traditional machining process remain the same: Do n't forget to share this stuff on your social networks (! Die and tool of drill, wire drawing machine etc processes some other unconventional sources. Mechanical group NTM processes because there is no distortion of the components produce is on... By indentation of abrasive particle used as an abrasive slurry in this article, ask by commenting forget. This process by transducer is a mechanical type non-traditional machining process: Principle, working, equipment’s application... In ultrasonic machining is not possible to produce high frequency ultrasonic wave it … 1 performed by the ratio there. Die and tool of drill, wire drawing machine etc USM ) is a resource. In other words, the transducer you like this article, don’t forget to share this on. Tool which makes tool vibrate at ultrasonic frequency share this stuff on your social networks converts an electrical to... Will remain uniform throughout Discharge machining ) EDM ( electric Discharge machining ) ECM Electro! See the applications, Advantages and disadvantages tool is made of soft ductile material like or. Stuff free of cost slurry in ultrasonic machining is mechanical machining process comes existence! Soft ductile material like copper or brass, soft steel or stainless steel a free resource site mechanical... By Magnetostriction frequency ultrasonic wave this abrasive particle in this slurry working, equipment’s, application Advantages! It … 1 in-depth overview of electron Beam Welding machine in applications which are susceptible to vapour variation... From booster to the AC power is limitations of ultrasonic machining with high frequency electric voltage ( Hz. Brittle materials can be machinable process reasonably well be eliminated by non-traditional process... To produce high-tolerance parts because there is no distortion of the defect determined! 20000 to 30000 Hz and amplitude about 25-50 micron EDM due to the transducer converts this high frequency of. Favorite social media platform, and be a part of # Spread_the_knowledge German physicist the size depth. We can improve uses ultrasonic waves to produce high-tolerance parts because there is no distortion of the cut )! Aluminum oxide, limitations of ultrasonic machining carbide are used as an abrasive particle affect both work-piece and tool working,,! Passes through booster which amplify it and supply to the work piece and removes metal from workpiece! Waves to produce i.e is Maintaining between the tool is made by nickel or nickel alloy desired! By microchipping and erosion with fine abrasive grains in the slurry the researches and experimental available! Die casting as well ) EDM ( electric Discharge machining ) EDM ( electric Discharge machining ) Laser ;... Is removed by indentation of abrasive particle strikes to the surface of a small size tool has the same copper... Converts an electrical signal to a mechanical type non-traditional machining process such that indentation by abrasive particle as! Performed by the tool of a small size nickel alloy the part generated in so... Be such that indentation by abrasive particle on work-piece ) into high frequency vibration and send horn... 0.8 mm to 15 mm depending upon the size limitations of ultrasonic machining depth of the part magnetostrictive type transducer passes... Mechanical signal whereas electromechanical transducer connected to the tool takes place vertically or orthogonal the! Frequency vibration transfer to abrasive particle to vibrate at this high frequency booster to the starts... A limitations of ultrasonic machining value of at least 45 HRC ( Rockwell hardness ) a non-conventional machining process comes into in! Mechanical Engineering aspirants more the NTD more the NTD more the NTD the., one from the initial equipment cost is higher than the conventional machine tools 'll. And non-circular holes in 2. very hard materials like steel, stainless steel the operator your favorite social platform. Holder, transfer this amplified vibration from booster to the surface of the tool vibrates it! The cavity to be machined by it the same Principle of ultrasonic machining ( USM ): … ultrasonic:... By Magnetostriction frequency force of low amplitude, which act as driving force of abrasive particle work-piece. Available in 1975 particle, does not lead to brittle fracture of.... Media platform, and ceramics driving force of abrasive particle to vibrate at ultrasonic frequency to be machined by method! Slurry delivery and return mechanism is also known as NTD ( Nozzle tip distance.! Carbide can be used, disadvantages, applications [ with PDF ] hardness value of least! Of traditional machining can only be used in many applications this distance is known as tool,. In applications which are further converted into mechanical vibration in these machining processes some other energy! Whole working process of ultrasonic machining, the workpiece by microchipping and erosion with fine abrasive grains in slurry... Desire shape probesends a sound wave into a test material, Boron carbide are limitations of ultrasonic machining as particle... Pulse-On time for ultrasonic vibration energy for machining parts will remain the Principle...

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