Data analysis was conducted using SPSS v20. While school, family and internal connectedness has been found to decrease tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use, connectedness to friends was found to increase substance use [61] . Co-morbidity for alcohol and mental illness is high with around 60% of university students presenting with substance use disorders also experiencing a mental health issue [18] . This review studies technology-supported interventions to help older adults, living in situations of reduced mobility, overcome loneliness, and social isolation. Scores were computed to represent no or low levels of distress (10 - 19); mild levels of distress (20 - 24); moderate levels of depression/and or anxiety (25 - 29) and high levels of depression/or and anxiety (31 - 50) [46] . Similar to other studies, males in this study were more likely to report hazardous drinking than females (males 42.5% vs females 35.2%) [4] and when all predictors were considered gender was a significant factor in hazardous alcohol consumption. The statements were adapted from the Revised version of the Social Connectedness Scale of Lee et al. Furthermore, enjoyment and moderate drinking can help relieve stress and therefore help students achieve good mental health [21] . This 12-item scale was developed for use in the general population and is focused on assessing community connectedness in relation to geographically specific neighborhoods. The majority of respondents in this study reported to consume alcohol at some level in the past twelve months (87%) which is consistent with previous university-based research which shows a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among young people [4] [49] [50] . Research assistants from the Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health were recruited, completed a standardized one hour training session delivered by the project staff and subsequently administered the survey. Statistical significance and proportions were compared for categorical variables using Chi-Square analyses. There was a similar representation of younger (18 - 20 years; 49.9%) and older students (21 - 24 years; 50.1%). Approximately ninety percent of the sample classified themselves as Australian (n = 1709, 90.6%) and 178 (9.4%) identified as international students. Studies have shown that international students tend to socialize with people whose cultural backgrounds are similar to their own [53] [54] . This study found that high levels of social connectedness predicted hazardous alcohol consumption. Social Connectedness feelings of social connection and positivity toward novel individuals on both explicit and implicit levels (source: Hutcherson, 2008). The Social Connectedness Scale was developed by Lee and Robbins (1995). UCLA Loneliness Scale The focus is on long-distance interactions, investigating the (i) challenges addressed and strategies applied; (ii) technology used in interventions; and (iii) social interactions enabled. In addition, this study confirms an association between mental health problems and levels of alcohol consumption and informs the need for the inclusion of mental health strategies on campus. While positive associations between school connectedness and mental health have been found [59] social connectedness may increase some risky behaviors [60] . Mashek, D., Stuewig, J., Furukawa, E., & Tangney, J. Rate the degree to which you agree or disagree with each statement using the following scale (1 = Strongly Disagree and 6 = Strongly Agree). This scale has 20 items with responses rated on a four-point scale ranging from “I have never felt this way” to “I have felt this way often.” Student recruitment for the online and intercept surveys was undertaken during a six week period from mid-July 2014. Copyright © 2020 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc. Social Connectedness Scale. Social connectedness appears to be an important feature of the schizophrenia spectrum especially when considering quality of life. reliability of the responses to the scale items. connectedness is the Sense of Community Index (SCI) developed by Perkins and colleagues (Long & Perkins, 2003; Perkins, Florin, Rich, Wandersman, & Chavis, 1990). The university setting provides a unique environment for students to become involved in clubs and groups while forming strong social bonds with others [7] [36] . This scale was designed to measure general feelings of social connectedness as an essential component of belongingness. The social identity scale uses a Given the benefits of social connectedness, further research is needed to determine how to enhance this as a protective factor as opposed to encouraging hazardous drinking. Of the 90.6% of domestic students who completed the AUDIT questions, 40.7% were classified as hazardous drinkers. Social connectedness has been identified as a protective factor for a range of health issues however the literature is not conclusive. For analysis responses were collapsed into three categories (None, 1 - 10hours and 11 - 20+). Lower levels of social identity was a moderate predictor of hazardous drinking (p < 0.05). Of these students 38% reported to drink at hazardous levels (AUDIT ≥ 8). For analysis responses were collapsed into two categories of “never” and “once a month or more”. Social connectedness refers to the relationships an individual has with others [22] , and can include relationships developed at home, school, work, special interest groups and within sporting groups. Whilst hazardous alcohol consumption is known to have negative impacts on mental health and academic performance [17] [19] university students have reported positive aspects to drinking including camaraderie with other students [20] . In recent work along these lines, we introduce a new measure of social connectedness between US county-pairs, as well as between US counties and foreign countries (Bailey et al. Scores range from 20 … There are a number of limitations to consider when interpreting the results of this study. A 2007 intervention undertaken at the same university found similar results with males and Australian and New Zealand residents having significantly increased odds of reporting hazardous AUDIT scores compared to females and international students [4] . Higher scores reflect a higher level of social connectedness [47] . Connectedness provides a sense of belonging and having social ties to the community has links to positive outcomes such as positive mental health and health behavior, less risk taking behavior such as alcohol and other drug use and better academic achievement for those in school [23] - [28] . Previous research has identified social isolation as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems (e.g., Berkman, 1995; Cacioppo & Hawkley, 2003; Cacioppo, Hughes, Waite, Hawkley, & Thisted, 2006; House, 2001). Only 1.9% (n = 38) of students indicated they may be experiencing severe depression and/or anxiety. Despite these finding, recent studies have indicated that female and male drinking levels among this target group are converging [13] [14] . The literature regarding social connectedness as a protective factor for health behaviors is not conclusive. The study aims to explore the association between levels of alcohol consumption, mental health, social connectedness and social identity among university students. A longitudinal study which followed secondary school students, once at grade 8 (13 - 14 years old), grade 10 (16 years old), and one year post-secondary school, found students with good school and social connectedness to have the best health outcomes, however those with poor school connectedness but good social connectedness were at a greater risk of mental health problems and engaging in risky health behaviors, such as alcohol and other drug use [60] . Students who reported higher levels of psychological distress, were 1.1 times more likely to consume alcohol at hazardous levels (OR 1.052; CI 1.008 - 1.033) while students who were more socially connected were 1.0 times more likely to consume alcohol at hazardous levels compared to low risk drinkers. Intended age range: This scale has been used with adolescents from Grade 8 upwards and is most appropriate for adolescent populations. %%EOF Responses included “several times a week”, “once or twice a week”, “about once or twice a week” and “never”. When all factors were considered identifying as an international student was a significant predictor of low risk drinking. The findings of this study suggest social identity may offer some protection against hazardous alcohol, consumption. Perth, Australia, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The social connectedness scale includes eight items consisting of a six level rating system (1 = agree to 6 = disagree); measuring connectedness (4 items), companionship (3 items) and affiliation (1 item). This is a truncated, 10-item “During the social interactions, I felt “in tune” with the person/s around me” and “During the social interactions, I felt close to the person/s,” using a 7-point scale (1 = not at all true, 7 = very true). The social connectedness scale includes eight items consisting of a six level rating system (1 = agree to 6 = disagree); measuring connectedness (4 items), companionship (3 items) and affiliation (1 item). h�bbd```b``>"�A$�'��_ y&��HV}�JM0{�dYfg��`�,��4�d�U�"Uf�Ȕ�%$#�@l� 6�D����ma��L�� A$�1 ���FF.� �Ä���x�@� �+� Despite the undeniable benefits of participation in organized sport there is evidence of higher rates of risky drinking among sport club members compared to the general community [29] . Social connectedness was measured by Urdu version of SCS-R (Fatima, 2014). Over half of the sample (61.9%, n = 1208) reported no or low levels of psychological distress; 28.5%. Socially disconnected and lonely individuals tend to suffer higher rates of morbidity and mortality (Taylor, Repetti, & Seeman, 1997; Thoits, 1995) as well as infection (Cohen, Doyle, Skoner, Rabin, & Gwaltney, 1997; Pressman et al., 2005), depression (Heikkinen & Kauppinen, 2004), and cognitive decl… %PDF-1.5 %���� Students who reported no personal study per week were more likely to report hazardous drinking (54.8%) (Table 1). Higher scores reflect a higher level of social connectedness[47] . The scale was developed based on the theory of self-psychology and measures feelings of belongingness. Moderate levels of depression and/or anxiety were reported by 7.6% (n = 149) of students. The scale consisting of eight items is used to determine the subjective perception of how Predictors of low and hazardous drinking using univariate analysis (categorical variables). The scale comprised of 20 items using a 6-point Likert-type scale in which response format is from 1=strongly disagree to 6=strongly agree. Once seen as a “rite of passage”, the prevalence at which alcohol is being consumed among university students has now become an international public health issue [6] . This study was based at the Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health. Mediators of low and hazardous drinking using univariate analysis (continuous variables). Further investigation is needed to fully understand the relationship between involvement in groups and clubs and alcohol consumption. Mediating variables included hours spent per week, at work, in university classes, personal study, participation (never, once a month or more) in university clubs, university sports, community clubs and community sports, K10 score, social identity score and social connectedness score. Other research has found hazardous alcohol consumption to be linked to high levels of distress in university students [18] . But the last thing our fragmented world and health care need is more social distance. Students who never participated in community sports were more likely to record low risk drinking compared to hazardous drinking (66.8% vs 33.2%). Consistent with these findings, social identity, which refers to how someone identifies with the people and groups around them, at what level they feel they belong to that group and what value or importance they place on that group [34] has been identified as a predictor of intentions to binge drink, especially for those who strongly identify with the group [35] . Hazardous drinking was similar for respondents who reported attending 1 - 10 hours (41.6%) and 11 - 20 hours (36.6%) of university classes. Johanna B. International students (88.2%) (p < 0.001) were more likely to participate in low risk drinking behavior. Table 1 shows the results of the initial univariate analysis comparing respondents who reported low risk and hazardous AUDIT scores to key demographic variables. 411 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<887C066582851745AC2B52FD207151BE><4A87382C2991AF428A8FC09C57713231>]/Index[379 69]/Info 378 0 R/Length 143/Prev 318433/Root 380 0 R/Size 448/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Methods. The surveys administered were the Social Connectedness Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Perceived Stress Scale I 0, the Patient Health Questionnaire 15 (PHQ 15), and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CESD-R) along with a demographics questionnaire. The questionnaires were administered for both the online and intercept survey through an online self-report questionnaire. A scale called the Personal Acquaintance Measurehas been developed to help a person measure their connectedness with another individual. Previously validated and reliable scales were included in the questionnaire. While peer connections can promote positive social, emotional and behavioral attributes they also have the capacity to influence negative behaviors [64] . Australian domestic students were approximately 5.8 times more likely to report hazardous drinking than international students. This suggests that social connectedness may help us deal with the impact of specific traumatic events, such as a global pandemic or a terrorist attack (Butler et al., 2009), rather than simply being related to levels of distress in general. (n = 556) indicated they may be experiencing mild levels of distress, mild depression and/or anxiety disorder. The university setting offers many opportunities for students to become connected with others [22] . This study was supported by Healthway (the Western Australian Health Promotion Foundation) project number 30104. However while there is limited evidence on the specific association between connectedness to club and alcohol consumption studies have found associations between excessive alcohol consumption and sports involvement in Australia [29] [30] , New Zealand [31] , the US [32] and Europe [33] which may suggest connectedness to some groups may not be protective for excessive alcohol consumption. Social connectedness: The Social Connectedness Scale , an 8-item measure scored on a 6-point Likert scale, indexed social connectedness. Lower social identity score refers to a higher level of social identity. Copyright © 2006-2021 Scientific Research Publishing Inc. All Rights Reserved. Folk, Debra Mashek, June Tangney, Jeffrey Stuewig, Kelly E. Moore, Connectedness to the criminal community and the community at large predicts 1‐year post‐release outcomes among felony offenders, European Journal of Social Psychology, 10.1002/ejsp.2155, 46, 3, (341-355), (2015). Within the sample, participation in university and community sports and clubs was low, which may limit the generalizability of the results. Consistent with previous research alcohol consumption was higher among students who participated in community sports (p < 0.001) and university sport (p < 0.05), with a higher proportion of students participating in sport reporting hazardous drinking [27] [56] [57] . The 10 item AUDIT, which provides a measure of alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and alcohol related problems (Scores: 0 - 40) [39] was used to measure level of drinking. Students who did not participate in paid employment were more likely to report low risk drinking compared to hazardous levels of consumption (69.1% vs 30.9%). The study sample was representative of the university population and reflective of enrolments in the Faculty areas. Commonly reported motivators for drinking among students can be categorized as social [8] , coping [9] and conformity motives [6] [10] . Scientific Research Students who participated in 11 - 20+ hours of paid employment were more likely to report hazardous drinking (43.3%). Background . Negative schizotypy was significantly related to social connectedness. These scales were designed to gain insight on how students use social media as a means of social interaction, and to get a stronger sense of how connected students feel to UBC. Students who participated in university and community sport were approximately 1.4 and 1.6 times more likely to be hazardous drinkers respectively. 1 Social Connectedness Scale – Revised Directions: Following are a number of statements that reflect various ways in which we view ourselves. The final questionnaire was tested for content and face validity [48] with an expert panel of health promotion and alcohol prevention experts (n = 7) and a purposive sample of the target group (n = 60). Students were excluded from completing the face-to-face survey if they had completed the online survey. When all factors were considered (Table 3) gender (p < 0.001), students’ living arrangements (p < 0.001), international student status (p < 0.001), hours spent at work (p < 0.001), participation in community sport (p < 0.001), the psychological distress (p < 0.001), and social connectedness (p = 0.001) were significant predictors of hazardous drinking, while participation in university sport (p < 0.05) was a moderately significant predictor of hazardous drinking. Univariate and bivariate analysis was conducted. Social Connectedness: Measurement, Determinants, and Effects 263 10–90percentile range of 42.5 to 67.4 percent; and over 70 percent of friends live within 200 … An additional 681 students completed the survey through intercept interviews. The newly developed multidimensional scale to measure social connectedness (Self in a Social Context—Social Connectedness Scale; SSC–SC) comprised a provisional item pool of 76 items in family, peer, school and community domains. Items on the Social Connectedness Scale reflect feelings of emotional distance between the self and others, and higher scores reflect more social connectedness. A better understanding of the association between connectedness, social identity, mental health and alcohol consumption will inform the development of appropriate interventions for young university students. (). The majority of respondents were female (62.1% n = 1504), followed by male, 37.5% (n = 908) and other gender (queer n = 4; androgynous n = 1; intersex n = 1, transgender female to male = 1; transgender male to female = 2). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample. The relevance of the pathways for individual and societal connectedness to nature, and their potential for application at deep leverage points (more on that later), is represented in Figure 2 which considers the location of connection/leverage points (X-axis) and scale of relevance (Y-axis) for the five types of relationship with nature found to be positive pathways to nature connectedness. This negative-worded 8-item measure, rated on a 6-point Likert scale, assesses how much a per-son feels they belong in social situations (Lee & Robbins, 1995). Higher scores reflect a higher level of social connectedness [47] . Of the students who completed the AUDIT questions (n = 1887), 38% (n = 717) reported that they consumed alcohol at hazardous levels (AUDIT score of ≥8). A total of 2506 surveys were included in the analysis. When considering all factors higher levels of psychological distress was found to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol consumption. I like the direct way that this one item scale attached measures social connectedness directly and visually. The majority of students had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months (87%). Social connectedness: The Social Connectedness Scale [20], an 8-item measure scored on a 6-point Likert scale, indexed social connectedness. To measure participation in clubs and groups students were asked how often they participated in university sports groups, community sports groups, university student academic clubs, university student special interest clubs, university student religious clubs, other university student clubs and community clubs/groups. Univariate relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variable of low risk and hazardous drinking were described. Social Connectedness Scale-Revised (SCS-R). In comparison, a 2009 study of 17 - 24 years old students (n = 7237) at the same university, found 34% of student respondents consumed alcohol at hazardous levels. The scale was developed based on the theory of self-psychology and measures feelings of belongingness. The connectedness to nature scale (CNS) is a measure of individuals' trait levels of feeling emotionally connected to the natural world in the realm of social and environmental psychology.The CNS was “designed to tap an individual’s affective, experiential connection to nature.” The concept of connectedness to nature signifies the relationship between an individual and the environment. Significant at p < 0.001*; significant at p < 0.05**. Students were ineligible to complete the intercept survey if they had responded to the email request. Item Development Using the same operational definition for social connectedness previ-ously established by Lee and Robbins (1995), we generated a total of 44 items that reflected the positive and negative aspects of connectedness. This study was approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (HR 54/2013). The initial email coincided with the release of semester one results. Students who participated in university sport once a month or more were more likely to report hazardous drinking (47.5%) compared to students who did not participate (35.9%). The majority of the student sample (n = 1905; 87%), reported to have consumed alcohol in the past 12 months. Table 2. Social Connectedness Scale. Poorer social connectedness may be a more powerful risk factor underlying deficits revealed in prior studies. Higher social connectedness scores refers to higher levels of connectedness; 2. The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Social connectedness is defined by frequency of contact with others, personal relationships, and engagement in the community. Responses included: “none”, “1 - 5 hours”, “6 - 10 hours”, “11 - 20 hours” and “20+ hours”. Relationship between social connectedness scale and loneliness scale with depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms Higher loneliness scores had significant positive correlation with severity of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms as assessed by … We A moderately significant association between lower levels of social identity and hazardous levels of alcohol consumption was found when all factors were considered. Social Connectedness Scale. endstream endobj startxref two scales- The Online Interactions Scale and The Social Connectedness Scale. Quantitative data were collected from a random cross sectional sample of undergraduate students aged 18 to 24 years, enrolled at the main university campus. Participants were randomly recruited using two different strategies: email invitation and intercept. (2006). Higher psychological distress scores refers to higher levels of distress, depression/and or anxiety;3. Students who lived in a share house or student housing were more likely to consume alcohol at hazardous levels which is similar to a study from New Zealand that found students living in a residence hall or boarding house were more than twice as likely to report hazardous drinking as those living elsewhere [51] . The impact social connectedness has on alcohol consumption and the mental health of university students will be analyzed. The scale was validated in a study with 626 Students were asked how many hours they spent in paid work, attending university classes and doing personal study each week. Thirty eight percent of the sample reported to drink at hazardous levels. Within the group of students who reported spending 11-20+hours of personal study per week, students were more likely to participate in low risk drinking compared to hazardous drinking (67.3% vs 32.7%). Internationally, a high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption among university populations is commonly reported [1] [2] [3] [4] . Higher levels of social identity though affiliation with specific groups has found to be protective for mental health problems and to enhance life satisfaction [62] while others have suggested young people’s alcohol consumption may be associated with the group to which they are most affiliated [63] . Another Australian university study found 46.6% of 18 - 24 years old consumed alcohol at hazardous levels using the same binary analysis of low risk and hazardous AUDIT scores as this study [49] . Similar to other studies of this population AUDIT was computed to a binary variable to represent low risk (<8) and hazardous levels of alcohol consumption (≥8) [4] [42] [43] [44] [45] . To ensure an adequate sample size, 6000 students from the target group were randomly selected to participate via their university email address, which was similar to other studies implemented at this university [37] [38] . The SCS-R 16 is comprised of 20 items AUDIT has been widely used to measure drinking levels on a population basis [1] [5] [40] [41] . 2017a). This measure, which can be shared with other academic researchers, is called the Social Connectedness Index (SCI), and is based on anonymised data on the number of friendship links on Facebook, the world’s largest online social networking service. h�b```�U�R�B ���������@�r�S���P�F8S:�,w�t1Mu��`��!���˓/_�:3��ð���W�{, For example amongst students, consuming alcohol has been linked to reducing anxiety involved in social situations and to improve their attractiveness to others [11] , a way of reducing or escaping negative emotions such as stress, anger or conflict [11] [12] and to fit in with peers [6] [10] . Table 1. The cross sectional nature of this study precludes the assumption of any causal effects. . Similarly, a study focusing on US and Canadian students (n = 71,860; n = 107 Institutions) found alcohol was one of the top ten factors affecting student’s mental health and academic performance [55] . The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10) measures the level of an individual’s distress, based on a five level response scale (Scores 10 to 50). ���ٲW 8�~�wo�X dHW4��. In Australia, males [4] and domestic students have been reported to be most at risk of consuming alcohol at harmful levels [4] [13] . The majority of respondents lived with parent/s or guardian/s (n = 1418; 60.3%), followed by sharing a flat or residence (n = 590; 25.1%); living with a partner and/or children (n = 128; 5.4%), or living in student housing (n = 114; 4.9%). Secondly, our data cannot determine the nature of the association between distress and social connectedness. This paper compares key factors for low risk and hazardous drinkers from a random cross sectional sample of 18 - 25 years old Western Australian university students. The social identity scale uses a five level rating system (1 = very much to 5 = not applicable); higher social identity scores reflect a lower level social identity with the people around them [46] . All variables were initially entered into the model; non-significant variables were removed before being placed into the binary logistic regression. There was a significant difference in place of residence and alcohol consumption, with students living in a share flat/house and student housing more likely to be hazardous drinkers (43.3%; 48.9% respectively). Collaboration for Evidence, Research and Impact in Public Health, School of Public Health, Curtin University, There was a significant difference between the hours students attended paid employment (p < 0.001); university classes (p = 0.003) and low risk and hazardous drinking. The SCS is assessed on a 6-point scale (1 = … Furthermore university students have been found to report higher levels of alcohol consumption than their non-student peers [5] . The context of alcohol consumption, social connectedness and social identity is a pertinent issue for both the university and health practitioners [65] . Further exploration of the associations between social connectedness and social identity as influences of health behaviors will better inform the development of targeted strategies for specific groups. In this early study hazardous drinking levels were defined by using hazardous AUDIT scores and more than six standard drinks in one sitting during the last month [4] . Adolescent connectedness to community, volunteer and religious groups was found to be protective of harmful alcohol consumption while those who were connected to sports clubs were more likely to consume alcohol at higher levels [4] . The authors acknowledge participants of this study who gave their time to complete the survey, the Curtin Office for Strategy and Planning and health promotion students for help in administering the survey. There was significant difference between students who participated in university sport (p < 0.001); and community sport (p < 0.001) and level of drinking. Responses were received from 1825 students (30.4% response rate). The majority of the sample did not participate in university sports (82.0% n = 1548), university clubs (76.4% n = 1441), community sports (65.7% n = 1239) or community clubs (68.2%, n = 1287). Nine independent raters assessed appropriateness of items, with two items deleted resulting in 74 items. Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale. An Academic Publisher, Is There an Association between Social Connectedness, Social Identity, Alcohol Consumption and Mental Health among Young University Students? Students who spent more hours in paid employment were 1.2 times more likely to consume alcohol at hazardous levels. There has been extensive research conducted with university students, examining the prevalence of alcohol consumption, their drinking motives and expectations and negative and positive outcomes from alcohol consumption, however there is less known about how being “connected” to community and others may influence alcohol consumption and how this association impacts mental health. Student was a significant influence on alcohol consumption was found when all factors were considered % ) ( 1! 16 items about information would be given out to the other items Background when interpreting the results the sample 61.9... Of self-psychology and measures feelings of belongingness: this scale was developed based on the theory of self-psychology and feelings! Variance ( ANOVA ) was used to evaluate means and statistical differences for continuous variables * ; significant at
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