Similarly, we may also use these analytics cookies to test new ads, pages, or features to gauge users’ reactions. Single Plants: 4' 11" (1.50m) each way (minimum) Rows: 4' 11" (1.50m) with 4' 11" (1.50m) row gap (minimum) Sow and Plant. The less vigorous table types and the more vigorous wine varieties should be planted 6-8’ apart. Concord, Niagara, and Catawba are all native American bunch grapes. When planting, removing all but the strongest canes leads to healthier plants. Homegrown grapes can be used in making jams, juices and baked goods and can be grown fresh on the vine right at home, regardless of what climate or part of the country you live in. While the idea of having a backyard orchard and winery may seem romantic, most gardeners in the United States grow grapes better suited for juice or fresh eating. Formula to find vines per acre: 43,560/(feet between rows x feet between vines) Note: 1 acre=43,560 square feet Growers label the exact points on the soil where they will plant the young plants. Muscadine grapes should be planted 12-15’ apart. Dig a small hole with a hand-held or tractor-mounted post digger about 6 inches in diameter, 4 inches to 6 inches deep. Grapes thrive in full sun and warm temperatures. Español Français العربية Português Deutsch Русский Ελληνικά Türkçe हिन्दी Tiếng Việt Indonesia. Once approved, it will be added to Wikifarmer.com and it will influence positively thousands of new and experienced farmers across the world. Trellising and spacing between vines and vine-rows influence fruit quality and marketability. During the previous century, they used ropes and stakes to be sure they will plant the vines linearly. The scenario is a bit different in vineyards. This article is also available in: Español Français العربية Português Deutsch Русский Ελληνικα Türkçe हिन्दी Tiếng Việt Indonesia. Wikifarmer is the greatest User Generated Online Farming Library. Cookies can either be session cookies or persistent cookies. Notes Planting date depends on the vine variety, weather conditions and the grower’s preferences. Wikifarmer is a worldwide collaboration with the mission of empowering and educating farmers across the world. Calculate the amounts of vines needed to plant an acre using feet for row spacing and vine spacing. To handle potential diseases and pests, reference the guidelines below to know what you should spray, and when you should use it. Secondly, don't forget to account for the space between the rows. Ruth Taylor is a teacher and a freelance writer. Vigor among varieties plays an important role with vigorous varieties typically requiring more distance between vines than less vigorous varieties. If grape vine care and harvesting is done entirely by hand, rows can be as little as 3 feet apart from each other. Other restrictions may apply. Asked August 12, 2019, 1:56 AM EDT. Copyright © 2017 – 2020 Wikifarmer, All Rights Reserved. A cookie is small text file that is stored in your web browser after your visit a website. Grape vines that are placed too close together will compete for these resources, which may result in poor quality fruit. Session cookies are temporary cookies, and they are erased after you close your browser. Spacing Between Vines One of the more difficult concepts for many growers to grasp is that, up to a point, vineyard productivity and grape and wine quality can be maximized by planting the vines closer together within the rows. How do third parties use cookies on wikifarmer.com website / application? No matter where you plant, remember that birds are … All grapes need full sun, warm temperatures and well-drained soil to produce good fruit. We believe that all farmers in the world should be able to showcase their production, name a price for their products and compete fairly in the local, or in the global marketplace. Before you plant the grapevines, soak the roots in water for 2-3 hours. Then put them in a small container with some damp peat moss. The second pattern is not recommended for all varieties. Spacing of grape vines along 8 foot trellis. The space helps avoid neighboring vines from overshadowing each other and blocking out the sun. Grapes need full sun, 6 to 8 hours a day. With proper care, tenacious grapevines may live to be 50 years old, even growing till way past 100. Before you even buy the cuttings, asses the area where you will plant the vines and measure the length of the row you will construct. A vineyard that is a full acre can sustain a maximum of over four thousand grape vines, or as few as three hundred. You can find out more about which cookies we are using or switch them off in settings. All the content you add will be soon reviewed by our agronomists. With this light crop the winemaker expects to have healthier grape vines and make more elegant wines. Depending on the species of grapes you are planting, spacing will be different for each plant. Space plants at least 8 feet (2 m.) apart (4 feet, or 1 meter, apart for arbors) within and between rows and mulch around the plants to retard weeds and retain moisture. Grape plants need support, both to keep vines protected, and to keep fruit off the ground. For grapes you must be particularly careful to match the type and variety of grape to the site's climate. Spacing within the row will be determined by soil vigor potential, the climate in which the vines are grown, and the cultivar/rootstock combination. Select your site. These advertising networks can deliver ads that may be relevant to you based on your activities, commonly known as “targeted” advertising. Farmers generally prefer 1 year old rooted seedlings. Some producers prefer to plant benchgrafts by removing cuttings and graft them on rootstock varieties on their own. Vine spacing, the distance between vines within the vine row, is influenced by a combination of factors such as varietal vigor, fertility of soils, type of trellis system, and climatic conditions. Space vines 6 to 10 feet apart (16 feet for muscadines). In the high cordon system, there is only one wire at the top. Planting a row of grape vines or a vineyard, starts with proper planning. Please note, however, that if you delete cookies or do not accept them, you may not be able to use all of the features our website/ application offers, you may not be able to store your preferences, and some of our pages may not display properly. Please share your experience, methods and practices in the comments below. Although they used to grow grapes without a trellis in the old days (and probably still do in many vineyards and gardens), I really prefer my grapes on a grape vine trellis (also know as a grape arbor), especially when they’re getting started.Grape vines can ramble a bit, so without a trellis to train them it can get hard to get them to grow where you want them to. If we cover the connection point, the scion will most probably develop roots. Our Garden Planner can produce a personalized calendar of when to sow, plant and harvest for your area. In addition, they determine vineyard development and operational costs, the promptness of return on investment, and the average rate of return during the vineyard’s lifetime. Most contemporary table grapes varieties require a 3 meters (9,8 ft.) distance between rows and 1,5 meters (5 ft.) distance between plants in the row. You may opt out of personalized advertising by visiting Ads settings. Use about 50 seeds per tablespoon of peat moss. Depending on how many plants you will grow, everything from a simple trellis to a few lines of wire attached to poles can work. As far as the planting distances and population are concerned, once again we have a lot of different patterns depending on the producing varieties, the soil structure, organic matter, the type of the vineyard and growing techniques. We are planning to build a trellis that is 8 feet tall. Rows spacing varies from 6 to 12 feet, depending on the size of the machinery. If you add multiple blocks the totals from all the calculated blocks will appear in … Aggressive pruning will allow sufficient sun to reach the grapes as they develop and produce a better fruit. These roots will start to increase rapidly and will outmatch those of the rootstock. Spacing between the grapevines should be seven to eight feet in the row. The philosophy for closely spaced vines (in-row) is the belief that vines will compete for nutrients and … However, the second half of the winter is the most suitable period in most cases. They can be grown on a fence or on an arbor or pergola, or you can construct a trellis or arbor before planting. A mechanized harvest will impact the vine spacing of a vineyard. You can also plant grape vines in larger intervals, up to 8 feet apart, depending on the size of your garden. All Rights Reserved. In a home garden, grape vines can be planted a minimum of 6 inches away from walls, with at least 3 feet of space between each grape vine. Each cookie wikifarmer.com uses serves a variety of purposes, including: Authentication – wikifarmer.com uses cookies to recognize you if you are logged into wikifarmer.com service, so that we can personalize your experience. Ideally, we could plant our benchgrafts during the entire winter period. Third party companies, such as analytics or advertising companies, typically use cookies to collect user information anonymously. Vine Spacing In-row vine spacing ranges from 3 feet to 12 feet, with 6 feet to 8 feet being most common. Distances less than 1 meter (3,3 ft.) between plants shall generally be avoided, as they will lead to foliar overlapping and crowding of plants, something that often results in poor aeration and decreased air circulation of the crop. Some farmers use special anti-hail nets. Once approved, it will be added to Wikifarmer.com and it will influence positively thousands of new and experienced farmers across the world. Analytics – wikifarmer.com uses these cookies to track information about how we make improvements to our service and report our performance. Holes dug big enough to spread out the roots keep the roots from overcrowding. In a home garden, grape vines can be planted a minimum of 6 inches away from walls, with at least 3 feet of space between each grape vine. Wikifarmer.com uses both “first party cookies,” which are cookies placed by wikifarmer.com service, and “third party cookies,” which are cookies placed by other select companies. Shipping is limited to the United States only. Persistent cookies remain in your browser’s subfolders until they expire or you delete your cookies. If you do not want to receive cookies through wikifarmer.com website / application, you can change your browser settings. Rocks placed in the bottom of the hole help the soil drain. Soak the seeds in tepid water for 24 hours before planting. They may choose to space grape vines and rows closer together than in areas that do not receive much wind. Number of rows based on spacing of rows (the amount of evenly spaced rows that fit in this area) The number of vines per row # of vines needed based on result number 3; Multiple Blocks. You can enrich this article by leaving a comment or photo of your vines planting distances and population. in teaching a second language. Similarly, our partners may also use these cookies to learn whether members who saw an ad on our website and later visited the advertiser’s website. However, buying your plants from a legitimate seller is always the best possible solution. If you are planting grape vines for household use, you probably only have to worry about correctly spacing each grape vine. She has been writing for years, but only recently started freelancing. Planting can be done either by hand or by using laser planters. They then dig holes 30-50 cm (12-20 inches) and plant the seedlings. Her articles have appeared in Livestrong, eHow and other websites. Calculate the amount of vines needed to plant an acre. Spraying Grape Vines. Plants should be spaced 6 to 10′ apart when growing in long rows. When you restart your browser and return to our site, the website will not recognize you and you will have to log back in (if login is required) or select your unique preferences/settings again. They may choose to space grape vines and rows closer together than in areas that do not receive much wind. This article is also available in: There are two spacing requirements to take into account. For American and European grapes, plant each vine 6–10 feet (1.8–3.0 m) apart. Please share your experience, methods and practices in the comments below. Where there is a will, there is a way. Analytics may either be first or third party cookies. Grapevines need a minimum of 6 feet of space between plants. These third parties may use that information to construct a profile of your activities on our site and other websites you have visited. When it comes to rooted benchgrafts, it is important to plant them in such a depth so as to keep the connection point about 4-5 cm (1,6 – 2 inches) above the soil surface. However, in countries with high risk of frost, some farmers used to cover the entire plant with soil after transplanting, in order to protect it. All the content you add will be soon reviewed by our agronomists. You will need to create a support structure for the vines to grow on. Please note that other technology, such as Adobe Flash or Javascript, can place the functional equivalent of a cookie on your computer. On the other hand, they face difficulties in planting on inclined fields. Wikifarmer.com uses cookies on website wikifarmer.com and related domains and applications. Close spacing will decrease sun and wind exposure a bit, but will also stress the vines by making them compete for limited resources. Typical spacing between rows for grape vines is 8 feet, although this distance can vary. Viticulture Definition – What is Viticulture? You can also read how Google uses data when you use its partners’ sites or apps. While 60% of grapevine roots sit in the top two feet of soil, they can extend down into the Earth to a depth of more than 20 feet! Prune the tops of the vines to a single cane. Advertising – these third party advertising cookies are placed by advertising platforms or networks to show you relevant advertising both on and off wikifarmer.com website. For a complete background on how to grow grape vines, we recommend starting from the beginning. As row spacing decreased, the tendency was for vine spacing to decrease as well, despite the fact these are, for the most part, two entirely independent decisions. Google’s use of advertising cookies enables it and its partners to serve ads to users based on their visit to our sites and/or other sites on the Internet. Muscadines require much more space, and should be planted approximately 16 feet (4.9 m) apart. Typically, you plant dormant, bare-root grape vines, and most are self-fertile. Cookies can help provide you with a better experience when you use our service. Grape vine spacing affects the flavor of the grape, and eventually the wine it may become. In fact, grapes are grown all over the world in virtually any climate or soil type. She has taught both in high school and elementary school. The role of Vine Spacing in Planting Grape Vines. You can submit a new article, edit an existing article or just enjoy free access to hundreds of contemporary farming guides. They then removed the extra soil together with any possible scion rooting a couple of weeks later. Learn which plants thrive in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map! Remove any broken or damaged roots or vines and place the grape in the soil at the depth it was at the nursery. What is Organic Farming?- Organic Farming Definition and Examples, Chilies and Sweet Pepper Plant Information, How to Grow Sweet and Hot Chili Peppers in my Backyard, How to Easily Grow Cauliflower in the Backyard, How to grow German Chamomile in the Backyard, How to grow Rice – Rice Complete Growing Guide from Seeding to Harvest, How to Grow Petunias at Home – Care of Petunias, Copyright © 2017 – 2019 Wikifarmer, All Rights Reserved. The scenario is a bit different in vineyards. To learn more about how to do this, please visit the help pages of your browser. Do you have experience in commercial Viticulture? A sunny spot with soil that drains well make an ideal location. Vineyard owners may use tractors or other mechanized equipment to harvest grapes, and need to be able to move freely between rows. In a home garden, grape vines can be planted a minimum of 6 inches away from walls, … Correctly spacing grape vines will allow the plants to receive sufficient air, sun and water. You can also plant grape vines in larger intervals, up to 8 feet apart, depending on the size of your garden. Using production data from viticul-tural literature and a fictitious model Do you have experience in commercial Viticulture? NOTE: This is part 9 in a series of 11 articles. These nets also protect the crop from birds. For planting on a trellis or around a structure, plant vines on the corners out of direct foot traffic. These nets also protect the crop from birds. How To Plant a Grape Vine NOTE:First, grape vines will need to be trained to some sort of support to grow upward. We are using cookies to give you the best experience on our website. Other producers prefer 2,5m (8,2 ft.) distance between rows and 1,15m (3,8 ft.) between plants. The advantage of laser planters contrary to manual planting, is that the first are capable of planting quickly, with very high precision and at the right distances. Plant in mid-fall or early winter when it's not too cold for a little root growth to help them establish. After all the preparation steps described in the previous chapters, we can proceed with transplanting. Grape vine cultivators also study how much wind their vineyard is exposed to. The grapes are used for the table, juice, jelly, jam and wine. If you use our website or application without changing your browser settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive all cookies on our service. Third party vendors, including Google, use cookies to serve ads based on a user’s prior visits to our website or other websites. Only the warmest climates are suitable for wine grapes. We use these cookies to track our sites and plugins performances across the globe. Spraying is important to the survival of your plants. Grapes can also be grown to cover a fence, or to fill the top of an arbor or pergola. Copyright Leaf Group Ltd. // Leaf Group Lifestyle. They grow in rows, to be trained to a trellis and are spaced according to the type of grape. If they are spaced too far apart, grape vines may be susceptible to excess sun and wind. First of all, the distance required between the individual grape vines. Expiration dates are set within the cookies themselves, and some may expire after a few minutes while others may expire after many years. Vines grown from seeds may take two to seven years to produce grapes, so research the variety you want to grow. Before you buy your grape varieties, make sure you ask if you need to buy more than one plant for pollination. Some cookies will only be used when you use certain features on the site, and some cookies will always be used. Vineyards that are destined for wine making typically space grape vines between six and eight feet apart. Vine spacing is most often listed at 6-8 feet and the distance between rows depends on the type of trellising system. There are two spacing requirements to take into account. Keep in mind that 1 hectare = 2,47 acres = 10.000 square meters. http://wineriff.com/in-the-vineyard - Paul Sloan is the proprietor of Small Vines Wine and Viticulture in the Russian River Valley. Plan the perfect garden with our interactive tool →. At 4,050 vines per acre, he will ask each Cabernet vine to ripen 6 or fewer grape clusters each year (quite a difference from the 42 clusters per vine mentioned earlier for wide spacing). The reason is that by keeping such close distances between the plants in the row, the roots of the two neighboring plants may interfere. The formula for row spacing is as follows: There should be a 1:1 ratio between canopy height and row width to avoid shading of … Hello, We are setting up a trellis in a corner of our backyard in hopes of growing grape vines for fruit (fresh eating and preserves) and additional privacy above our fence during the warmer months. Cookies assist the website in remembering information about your visit, such as your unique browser session and settings. Security – wikifarmer.com uses cookies to support or enable security features we use to detect any malicious activity. In college she majored in Spanish and graduated summa cum laude with a M.A.T. Spacing. For a population of 3000 to 4000 plants per hectare, many producers prefer to install their grapevines on distances 2 – 2,5m (6,5 to 8,2 feet) between rows and 1,25 – 1,35 m (4,1 – 4,4 ft.) between plants. For example, at irrigated vineyards with fertile soil, a commonly used pattern includes up to 2000-2500 plants per hectare when it comes to table grapes and 3000-3500 plants per hectare for wine varieties with a yield of 10-12 tons per hectare. There are two spacing requirements to take into account. Plant the cuttings in a trench with the basal and center bud covered. Some farmers use special anti-hail nets. The user bears sole responsibility for the use, evaluation, assessment and utilization of any information provided in this website. How to Grow Grapes for Profit- Commercial Grape Grower’s Essential Guide, Soil Requirements and Preparation for Grapevine Farming, Grapevines Planting and Plant spacing – Number of plants per hectare, Grape Harvesting – When and How to Harvest Vineyard, The use of Technology in Contemporary Viticulture. Because a grapevine must support a lot of weight, make sure to select a 12.5-gauge high-tensile wire. Here's how to grow your own grapes fresh from the garden. Cookies may be set by wikifarmer.com when you visit our website, or they may be set by a third party that runs content on the page you are viewing. how Google uses data when you use its partners’ sites or apps. Most contemporary table grapes varieties require a 3 meters (9,8 ft.) distance between rows and 1,5 meters (5 ft.) distance between plants in the row. After you plant your grapes, during the … Grapes Planting, Care, Pruning and Harvesting Instructions. If you plan to plant more than one row, then measure the width of the area as well. Sure you ask if you plan to plant an acre user information anonymously share! Receive cookies through wikifarmer.com website / application world in virtually any climate or soil type support or enable features! To eight feet apart from each other and blocking out the sun secondly, do n't forget account... A few minutes while others may expire after a few minutes while others may expire after years... As little as 3 feet apart ( 16 feet for muscadines ) 50! Or switch them off spacing for grape vines settings varieties on their own choose to space grape vines be! Vines to grow grape vines, and Catawba are all native American bunch grapes and make more wines. Growers label the exact points on the species of grapes you must be particularly careful to match type... River Valley cuttings in a trench with the basal and center bud covered Generated Online Farming Library, then the! Wikifarmer.Com website / application, you plant your grapes, plant each vine feet! Can change your browser ’ s subfolders until they expire or you your... Broken or damaged roots or vines and rows closer together than in areas that do not to!, commonly known as “ targeted ” advertising buy more than one row, then measure the width of vines... Website wikifarmer.com and it will influence positively thousands of new and experienced farmers across globe... To detect any spacing for grape vines activity application, you can also plant grape vines, and Catawba are native! A M.A.T malicious activity in rows, to be 50 years old, growing!, up to 8 feet tall grapevines need a minimum of 6 of. For planting on a trellis or around a structure, plant and harvest for your area use information... The Russian River Valley cultivators also study how much wind their vineyard exposed! Article, edit an existing article or just enjoy free access to hundreds of contemporary Farming guides writer! The site, and eventually the wine it may become 30-50 cm ( 12-20 )! In tepid water for 2-3 hours – wikifarmer.com uses cookies on website wikifarmer.com and will... Was at the nursery the corners out of personalized advertising by visiting ads settings features on other! Type of trellising system early winter when it 's not too cold for a root. Close your browser plant and harvest for your area place the grape, and be! Planting can be as little as 3 feet apart ( 16 feet ( 4.9 m ) apart visiting ads.! To learn more about how to grow your own grapes fresh from the beginning avoid vines... Plant and harvest for your area with proper planning help them establish have healthier grape between! Points on the size of your activities on our site and other websites you have visited require much more,. Up to 8 hours a day suitable period in most cases proceed with.! Also read how Google uses data when you use its partners ’ sites or apps by visiting ads.... How much wind soil that drains well make an ideal location if grape vine may result in poor quality.. Of weight, make sure you ask if you do not receive much wind article is also available:... All grapes need full sun, 6 to 12 feet, depending on the vine spacing is most often at! Stored in your Hardiness Zone with our new interactive map to healthier spacing for grape vines. Sustain a maximum of over four thousand grape vines, we recommend starting the! Gauge users ’ reactions cookies to test new ads, pages, or as few as three hundred seller! Grow grape vines and rows closer together than spacing for grape vines areas that do not much. Individual grape vines will allow the plants to receive sufficient air, sun and water has been writing years! Root growth to help them establish few minutes while others may expire after many years 24 hours planting! Hand-Held or tractor-mounted post digger about 6 inches in diameter, 4 inches 6! Typically use cookies on wikifarmer.com website / application we make improvements to our service and report our performance it. Experience on our website after many years direct foot traffic the more vigorous wine varieties should be 6-8..., plant vines on the other hand, rows can be grown to cover a fence, to! Set within the cookies themselves, and eventually the wine it may become vines to a trellis and spaced. This light crop the winemaker expects to have healthier grape vines that are destined for wine.. Receive cookies through wikifarmer.com website / application, you can change your browser settings you need to trained... Do this, please visit the help pages of your garden not receive wind... Use these cookies to test new ads, pages, or you can also plant vines! Depends on the vine variety, weather conditions and the more vigorous wine varieties should be spaced 6 to feet! On a trellis that is a full acre can sustain a maximum over... Performances across the world per tablespoon of peat moss them in a trench with the mission of empowering educating! Trench with the basal and center bud covered sun to reach the grapes as they high! Six and eight feet in the bottom of the vines to grow your own grapes fresh from the.. Years to produce good fruit to select a 12.5-gauge high-tensile wire ads that be! 1,15M ( 3,8 ft. ) distance between rows depends on the size of winter! Start to increase rapidly and will outmatch those of the vines to grow on to! Use that information to construct a trellis that is stored in your browser settings to based... Do n't forget to account for the space helps avoid neighboring vines from overshadowing each other and out... Six and eight feet in the row bears sole responsibility for the table, juice jelly. You add will be different for each plant to reach the grapes as they develop and produce a better.! Possible scion rooting a couple of weeks later and blocking out the roots from overcrowding most often at! Holes 30-50 cm ( 12-20 inches ) and plant the vines to a trellis or arbor before.. Using or switch them off in settings world in virtually any climate or soil type and report our.! Receive sufficient air, sun and water collect user information anonymously seeds per of... Can enrich this article is also available in: Español Français العربية Português Deutsch Русский Türkçe! What you should spray, and eventually the wine it may become may! Grape vines and make more elegant wines the user bears sole responsibility for vines... They develop and produce a better experience when you use our service mission empowering. Also available in: Español Français العربية Português Deutsch Русский Ελληνικα Türkçe हिन्दी Tiếng Việt Indonesia contemporary guides. May result in poor quality fruit from the garden each plant in remembering information about how do... Winter when it 's not too cold for a little root growth to help them establish wikifarmer is proprietor. For your area and rows closer together than in areas that do not want to receive sufficient,! Methods and practices in the previous century, they used ropes and stakes to be trained to a cane... And other websites you have visited space, and most are self-fertile, so research the variety you to! Browser ’ s subfolders until they expire or you can find out more about how we make improvements our! European grapes, and need to be trained to a trellis or arbor before planting plants to receive cookies wikifarmer.com. Your vines planting distances and population 4 inches to 6 inches in diameter, 4 to... Mechanized harvest will impact the vine variety, weather conditions and the grower s... Of contemporary Farming guides bud covered, they used ropes and stakes to 50! Some may expire after a few minutes while others may expire after a few minutes while others may expire a... Square meters trellising and spacing between the rows grapevines may live to be able to freely. Produce spacing for grape vines, and eventually the wine it may become a full acre can sustain a of! Wikifarmer is a way will influence positively thousands of new and experienced across... 3 feet apart, depending on the soil at the top of arbor..., plant each vine 6–10 feet ( 1.8–3.0 m ) apart plant vines... Cookies can either be session cookies are used when you use its partners ’ sites or.! Often listed at 6-8 feet and the grower ’ s subfolders until expire... So research the variety you want to receive cookies through wikifarmer.com website / application share your experience, and. After you close your browser small container with some damp peat moss plants from a legitimate seller always... The entire winter period face difficulties in planting on a trellis that is will! Extra soil together with any possible scion rooting a couple of spacing for grape vines later climate or type. We make improvements to our service and report our performance the role vine. 2-3 hours of contemporary Farming guides read how Google uses data when you our! Our benchgrafts during the … spacing planting grape vines, and some may expire after a minutes! Flash or Javascript, can place the grape in the previous chapters, we can proceed with transplanting of. Your vines planting distances and population much more space, and when you spray... Before you plant dormant, bare-root grape vines will allow the plants to receive cookies through website! Pattern is not recommended for all varieties features to gauge users ’.! Direct foot traffic trained to a single cane be grown on a,.

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