If downward communication lacks clear instructions and guidelines to do the work, then it may not only be proved to be futile but would also hamper the employee morale. Positive side. There are four key variables associated with communication: control, motivation, emotional, and expression. It is not required to be designed and planned in advance. It is also known as horizontal communication. Informal communication is otherwise known as ............................ communication, 37. There is a saying – “nothing comes like a free lunch.” That is one has to pay for everything. The communication network represents the pattern of contacts among the members of an organisation. Rumours are an everyday part of business and management. It means communication between persons who are neither in the same department nor on the same level of organizational structure. First, employees may not feel free to discuss their problems for fear of criticism. Thus, even if people are communicating, there is no personal touch or friendliness in it. Large organisations, where there are many people who are working closely, create certain unofficial or informal communication channels. Some rumours that travel through the company grapevine or outside the organisation are true. It is free from all formally delegated lines of authority. 9. Effective upward communication means getting messages from employees to management. An important part of downward communication is information about the objectives, policies and programmers of the enterprise. Both can complement and supplement each other. Based on Social Relations – The very origin of informal communication is that it is an outcome of craving to have social informal group to talk freely. Interpersonal communications travel from individual to individual in face-to-face and group settings and the forms vary from direct verbal orders to casual, nonverbal expression. It is the primary means of managerial communication; on a typical day, over three fourths of a manager’s communications occur via face-to-face interactions. People, being social creatures, have a desire to talk informally with each other. 5. Informal communication is an outcome of an individual’s basic desire to socialise according to his desires, with the person of his choice, at the time comfortable to him and without any positional pressures. A communication channel is the route through which messages flow from the sender to the receiver. (vi) Grapevine helps to satisfy social needs of employees and provides an outlet for releasing anxiety frustration etc. (iii) Source – The rumour has a source, the communicator of the rumour. Sometimes managers also use informal communication when they find it difficult to collect information from the workers. Directionless – Informal communication does not follow any specified direction of flow. Informal Communication. 2. 2. Sometimes, rumour arises due to pure maliciousness on the part of employees. Until and unless work done by subordinates is reported back to superiors, it has no meaning. Moreover, by knowing who can communicate to whom, people are also at ease and comfort in terms of communicational guidelines. The cluster pattern of grapevine in which only select individuals repeat what they hear, is the pattern most commonly found in organisations. Developed by, Business Communication Objective Questions and Answer. In the 5 Parts series which can be referred using below , the first four parts contains important short study notes useful for your paper 1 preparation while the 5th part contains solved question papers of last almost 12 years MCQ Question. Another major disadvantage of informal communication is that it leads to conflicts among employees. 4. Informal communication or grapevine has the following characteristics: (i) It arises from social interactions among people, (ii) It is a natural and normal activity due to desire of people to talk to one another, (iii) It generally operates like a cluster chain as every person tells in turn many other persons, (iv) Only a few persons are active communicators in it. A manager cannot exercise effective control without do a complete such information and he cannot do a complete job of managing without controlling. Curbs Creativity – Under this communication system, everybody performs their duty by following specific fixed system. No formal organisational chart is followed to convey the message. The rumour gets twisted and distorted as it passes from person to person. It serves as a measurement of effectiveness of downward communication. Then a diagram of these patterns, known as a sociogram, is drawn showing the pathways used for communication. A lot of information flows horizontally in an organization. 31. This type of information communication goes up, sideways, down, and diagonally in an organization, and it spreads the information by using separate means from the formal channels of communication. One of the most commonly used media of upward communication is periodic performance reports from subordinates. Spontaneous – Informal communication may take place at any time, between any members of organisation instantaneously. Such communication may help to save time and to speed up action. Informal communication suffers from the following drawbacks: (i) It is not authentic and message may get distorted. For example, rumours run rampant in a company shortly after it has been acquired by another firm. To avoid the challenges associated with grapevine communication, empirical studies ii. Informal communication acts as a breather and platform for candid expression. Such communications are carried out for ensuring coordination, sharing of mutual information and overall organisational development. There are four forms of formal communication as it flows in three directions: 1. Grapevine communication existed from the American Civil War to the First World War. (ii) It increases the workload on the line supervisors because all communications are transmitted through them. It may be moulded any time and by any one according to their desires and wishes. Therefore, it spreads very fast and with wide coverage. Formal communications are generally in writing. When a roumour is repeated people may assume that it has been confirmed. Points : 25 Introduction: Grapevine communication is an informal form of communication in an organization. Share Your Word File For example, before an interview, giving few advices. Although they may not always be successful in convincing the general public that their actions are public- minded, they must try to win and maintain the support of their employees. Informal or Grapevine communication is an indispensable part of entire communication system. The sociogram also singles out a liaison person, who is at the centre of information flow. The officially prescribed path of communication is orderly in nature. When the supervisor of the accounting department communicates with the director of marketing concerning advertising budget expenditures, the flow of communication is horizontal. Inflexible – Formal communication is rigid in nature. ............................ communication is the most popular means of transmitting message. Explaining company rules, policies and procedures, iii. Grapevine communication is an informal channel of business communication. (b) Wheel Communication Network – This type of network represents the communication pattern under which the subordinates can communicate with and through one manager. It satisfies an important urges of employee to known what is happening other parts of the organisation. A diagonal communication takes place when sale representatives submit their report directly to the Coat and Works Accountant. Grapevine or the informal channels of communication help to improve managerial decisions and make communication more effective. The managers relate to and learn from the environment through information received and transmitted. It may go to any extent. An executive can know the outcome of his decisions and instructions from reliable information from the employees. Second, through informal channel, a manager may pass on information which the formal structure does not permit. May breed animosity against particular executives. TOS4. Regular provision of such information to employees helps to create a sense of belonging, a feeling of loyalty to the organization and an active interest in the work. For example, if a level five employee wants to communicate with level two employee, he has to cross all intermediate levels which slowdowns the process. Large organisations are more and more viewed with distrust and suspicion. It should not repeat the rumour. People are active on the grapevine when their own interests and interests of their friends/ colleagues are involved, (v) It operates at a fast speed because it functions through word of mouth or observation. Unofficial and informal communication system, people gossiping, and bad or embarrassing news travels fast. iv. Also, informal communication systems such as the grapevine can be used by managers to benefit programmes, policies, or plans. Informal communications are inevitable and they should be fully used by management to serve the objectives of the enterprise. Thus, the purpose of formal communication is to carry directives and information from superiors to subordinates, transfer reports, records, suggestions, demands, etc., from subordinates to superiors and transfer of reports, circulars, notes, etc., from one colleague to another. Better Monitoring and Control – As formal communication follows a scalar chain of command to transfer information, there is absolute clarity as to what information has been sent by whom and to whom. The channels of communication are: 1. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Economics. Filled up forms as required by the organisation. It may be defined as that information which is circulated through grapevine without any authentic evidence of its existence. The more interdependent the work of the departments, the greater is the need to formalise horizontal communication. It may take the shape of discussing problems, venting out personal issues, seeking and giving suggestions, having fun together, etc. Upward communication is a means through which subordinates express themselves and present their work to the superiors. Grapevines make it possible to receive genuine and quick feedbacks. Thus, in case of any problem, it becomes very easy to identify the source and control the issue. This type of communication is very essential for maintaining a smooth flow of functioning and balance between different departments or different business units. Thus, it is developed and built upon social associations among people free from their hierarchical positions and status. In large organisations, the process of communicating with employees is undertaken by a staff of communication experts whose usual function is to produce a publication aimed at three purposes – (i) to explain the organisation’s plans and programmes as they are implemented; (ii) to answer complaints and criticisms; and (iii) to defend the status quo and those who are responsible for it. The use of the term grapevine is originated during the Civil War, when telegraph lines were strung loosely between trees and soldiers said the wires resembled a grapevine. reason, information from the informal channel is considered second class by employees. With informal channel, they feel more secure and contended. Organizational distance, screening at various points and narrow route are the main bottlenecks in the flow of formal communication. It is also known as top-down communication. (iii) The action taken on the basis of such communication may be erratic and may lead the organisation in difficulty. People intermingling very frequently comes to know about each other’s positives such as – strengths and weaknesses emotional levels, fears, beliefs, apprehensions, etc. (v) Managers can use it to collect feedback when it is not possible to gather information through the established channels in the formal communication. Horizontal or lateral communication is very advantageous. v. It gives opportunity to employees to form social group and communicate with each other. Privacy Policy3. They also must motivate people to support … When managers attempt to communicate with other people the problems that can arise can be traced to perceptual and interpersonal style differences. Welcome to EconomicsDiscussion.net! Upward communication also enables management to know the level of actual execution vis-a-vis plans as communicated by them. 1. Horizontal communication takes place mostly through meetings, conferences, telephones, letters, memos, manuals, etc. Manager should, therefore, interpret the reports very carefully. Clarity in Communication – Formal communication derives its origin from organisational structure. Grapevine is a channel through which the actual communication between various troops of the organization takes place and gives out the desired outcome. These can provide valuable insight into the thoughts, feelings, and opinions of employees to which managers can respond. These channels exist with or without authorised patronage. An enterprise may supply information to external agencies such as customers’ investors, government, financial institutions and the public. It is often both inadequate and inaccurate. For horizontal communication managers can appoint committees of representatives from the departments. Communication means ............................. information, feeling and thoughts, with others, 32. If not coordinated properly, lateral communication may cause delays and rift in the departments. Unlike internal communication, external communication flows outward. It is not subject to any permissions, notices or approvals. As per an analysis, around 80% of the rumors in grapevine communication are … When a roumour is repeated people may assume that it has been confirmed. Rumour is often created by people who are in a situation of hearing or seeing things but occupy no high position in the organization, for instance, a secretary may over hear a conversation or a storekeeper may see a discarded message. Besides being job-centric, upward communication also provides a vent to employees to share their problems and grievances with their superiors. Considerable details are added to it. In their absence, employees find ways to adapt to non-existent or inadequate upward communication channels, as evidenced by the emergence of underground employee publications in many large organisations. With informal communication, they may clear out any misunderstanding or grudges and regain cordiality. Such networks are also described as “grapevine communication.” They may come into being through the rumor mill, social networking, graffiti, spoof newsletters, and spontaneous water-cooler conversations. It is called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of … It is called so because it stretches throughout the organization in all directions irrespective of the authority levels. With organisations growing in size and complexities, formal communication becomes further more necessary for hassle-free communication. It is used to issue orders and instructions to employees. Thus, communication in an organisation flows through following two channels: Formal communication refers to exchange of information and messages within an organisation through formally established channels and is concerned with exchange of official information. Top management must depend on subordinates for vital information received from suggestion systems, open-door discussions, attitude surveys, and participative decision meetings. One, it may be used to spread information rapidly, which otherwise would not have been possible. Uncontrollable Management – This communication although may carried out within the organisation but is not within the purview of management. It does not follow any prescribed or predetermined rule and spreads any information quickly. The grapevine is formed by individuals and groups in an organization. For example, the production and marketing departments should be well informed of each other’s functioning as marketing schedule and production schedule are interdependent. 4. It is very useful when information is required to be communicated very quickly. Its primary objective is to fulfill basic human desire to interact for which talking and speaking is the best mode. Along the organisational hierarchy, it may flow in the following three directions: Downward communication may be defined as a flow of communication from a higher level in an organisation to the lower level. Sharing reports having impact on other department. Each person adds or subtracts something from the original message depending on his interest. USA - United States of America  Canada  United Kingdom  Australia  New Zealand  South America  Brazil  Portugal  Netherland  South Africa  Ethiopia  Zambia  Singapore  Malaysia  India  China  UAE - Saudi Arabia  Qatar  Oman  Kuwait  Bahrain  Dubai  Israil  England  Scotland  Norway  Ireland  Denmark  France  Spain  Poland  and many more.... © 2019 Copyright Quiz Forum. To do this, managers create a plan that defines what needs to be done, when it will be done, and how it will be done. Rather in its absence, a manager’s ability to motivate people, build teamwork and develop sense of identity with the organization would be greatly reduced. This is quite similar to the vine of grapes. Grapevine Definition in Business Communication. 5. Such routinely scheduled staff meetings can facilitate horizontal communication. Organisations, being formal structures, follows written mode of communication such as – letters, memos, notices, circulars, handbooks and e-mails. Grapevine communication is associated with ............................. communication, 34. These can be called liaison individuals. 1. It was coined this because of its nature of networking and reaching several at once; it causes the transformation of information between one individual and another. It frequently arises due to employees’ anxiety and insecurity caused by poor formal communication. It works faster than formal communication. This can provide a manager with insights into the informal as well as the formal patterns that control the flow of communications within a department. It takes place in informal and inter-personal contacts among employees. Regardless of their validity, rumours tend to flourish if their content is entertaining, important, and ambiguous. May distort official channels of communication. For example, the effectiveness of downward communication is directly dependent on whether it is being complemented by effective upward communication and vice versa. 4 managing the grapevine and communications generally: Studies have suggested that approximately 80% of Grapevine communication concerns business‐ related topics rather than personal gossip and that the majority of these communications are accurate. According to Bovee and his associates, “informal communication is a flow of information without regard for the formal organisational structure, hierarchical or reporting relationship.”. It is purely structure less, directionless and boundless. Such communication is helpful in coordinating the activities of different departments or divisions of the enterprise. (iii) Its speed is very fast because it is free from all barriers. Once a rumour’s theme is known and accepted, people distort future messages to conform to the rumour. This preview shows page 11 - 18 out of 21 pages. It may be disadvantageous if downward communication is used as a tool to exercise authority. When a person has no interest or there is no ambiguity in his mind, there is little cause for rumour. Most common forms of downward communication are job instructions, official memos, policy statements, procedures, posters, manuals, and company publications. Such network might be appropriate for simple operations requiring little intuition among the members of group. Both the systems exist in all organisations. Addressing the factors associated with grapevine chatter can minimize but never totally eliminate the amount of informal communication occurring. Tells management when to be firm and when to yield. Its intended messages are those which present the organisation’s side of issues. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. The merits of informal communication are as under: i. 3. (v) It is not dependable as informal channels may not always be active. It facilitates the genuine sharing of information without any status issues. The information flows in any order i.e. Rumour may also be used by employees to put pressure upon management. (ii) The personal motives are other dominant it transmitting information through the grapevine. Messages that were difficult to decipher were said to have come through “the grapevine”. The best approach in dealing with a rumour is to identify and remove its cause rather than try to kill it after has begun. iii. Good informal structure compliments the existence of formal structure in many ways. This type of communication are mostly in black and white. Rumour is generally incorrect through it may by change be correct. Lack of Evidence and Problems in Accountability Fixation: Informal communication, being primarily oral in nature, does not keep a check on what is being said and by whom. Lateral communication is between . It is grapevine information which is communicated without the presence of authentic standards of evidence. (vi) Grapevine functions partly in a predictable manner which offers managers a chance to influence it. Once the source of a rumour becomes known, it should be removed as early as possible. Formal communication follows practices shaped by hierarchy, technology systems, and official policy. Downward Communication 2. From such small seeds the rumour grows to immense size. 7. Thus, it has a clear pre-defined path to follow without any confusion or choice. Despite existence of formal channels in an organization, the informal channels tend to develop when he interacts with other people in organization. Grapevine Communication. It facilitates people to clarify misunderstandings, understand each other in a better way, and work like a team with each other and not against each other. Being a network of networks, grapevine communication conglomerates gossip, rumors, and official information. Thus, in overall, informal communication is a source for building healthy interpersonal relationships and bonding among employees. Widely used upward communication devices include suggestion boxes, group meetings, participative decision making, and appeal or grievance procedures. Share Your PDF File Channels of Communication – Downward, Upward and Horizontal Communication, Channels of Communication (With Advantages and Disadvantages), Channels of Communication in an Organisation, Channels of Communication – Informal Communication (With Types, Advantages and Disadvantages). The oral message used to remove a rumour should be confirmed in writing and it should be circulated quickly. 3. Upper-level managers often do not respond to messages sent from lower-level employees. It flows from individuals in higher levels of the organisation to those at lower levels. Rumour originates due to several reasons. Important rumours have staying power because their information concerns people. Share Your PPT File, Channels of Communication: Formal and Informal Communication, Channels of Communication – Formal and Informal Communication. There are informal channels of communication. It gives the employees a sense of belonging through participation in management. Informal communication always attracts people as it relates to conversation of their interest. The message acquires its own head, tail and wings on the journey. iv. Employees seek information to reduce their uncertainty and anxiety about their jobs and the future of the company. This gap is filled by informal communication. -Managers negative feelings -More prevalent lower levels -Likely more influential large organizations -Usually accurate - helps managers learn how employees feel about policies - programs. Some studies suggest that upward communication is the most ineffective of the three formal communication channels. (iii) As grapevine has no definite origin, nobody can be held responsible for it. In the absence of a mechanism for authentication of the news and views, the members of the organisation are likely to be misinformed and misled by informal organisation. Oral downward communication may take place by means of instructions, meetings, the telephone, loudspeakers and even the grapevine. Such communication does not have any layout and need not be carried out within the organisational premises. Therefore, management must supply the true facts in time preferably through face to face talk. Communication can Grapevine Communication Essay given. These documents are stored within the organisation and thus are free from any personal intervention. (i) The Target – It is the object of the rumour. Where formal communication fails to operate, grapevine or informal communication is used. Oral Communication – Informal communication more often uses oral mode and seldom written mode is used. School KASB Institute of Technology, Karachi (Main Campus) Course Title SOCIOLOGY 123; Uploaded By AgentKookaburaMaster193. Due to informal linkages, people may disclose some vital information at the wrong time which may create confusions and conflicts or in front of wrong people who may misuse such information. It represents communication among people free from all sorts of formalities. These reports may be used to measure performance, to control costs, to check conformance with policies and procedures, etc. A three-way communication system is much more effective than one-way (downward) communication only. It cuts across departmental lines. Grapevine. It allows for the flow of essential information. But it may violate the principle of unity of command. 3. How can organizations avoid the communication of false information? Informal versus Formal Networks. Means of Expression – People may feel suffocated while obeying organisational rules and regulations and following formal structures. However, by better understanding the grapevine, we can successfully leverage it as part of our overall communication strategy. Informal communication, being deliberately initiated by people, has the following advantages: This medium of communication which is purely informal and unofficial is initiated as and when desired by the communicators. The effectiveness of downward communication can be judged from the degree of improvement in general performance of employees. There is a saying “Too much of familiarity breeds contempt.” Same holds true for informal communication also. Second, it enables the managers to exercise control by comparing activity reports with the plans. Upward communication performs the following important functions: i. The manager who understands and examines the formal flow of communication is better able to appreciate the barriers to effective organisational communication, as well as the means for overcoming them. It should not repeat the rumour. Today’s grapevine cuts across formal channels of communication. While being on work, one wishes to talk and spend time for matters other than work such as taking lunch together, discussing about a common hobby in tea break, venting out after having a scolding from boss, etc. 3. Members of an informal groups pass on informal and opinions to each other as well as to other informal groups. Grapevine communication is a metaphor for a communication system that began in the 1860s during the Civil War in America as a description for telegraph lines that were strung through trees, resembling grapevines. From manager’s point of view, he may learn about employee by gathering information on employee satisfaction level, his expectations, any problems he is facing, future plans, etc. Useful for developing group cohesiveness. Third, upward communication may not be a genuine communication and rather may be a fabricated one for want of superior’s praise and being in his good books. Informal channels have their sanction in the social groups that develop within the organisation and messages are communicated freely with each other, it is free from all formally delegated lines of authority. A proper balance should be struck between the various flows of communication. Frankly to their desires and wishes become all the more necessary due to maliciousness... 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